1. Marco Scutari, Pietro Auconi, Guido Caldarelli and Lorenzo Franchi. Bayesian Networks Analysis of Malocclusion Data. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS 7, November 2017. DOI BibTeX

    @article{ISI:000414917000002,
    	abstract = "In this paper we use Bayesian networks to determine and visualise the interactions among various Class III malocclusion maxillofacial features during growth and treatment. We start from a sample of 143 patients characterised through a series of a maximum of 21 different craniofacial features. We estimate a network model from these data and we test its consistency by verifying some commonly accepted hypotheses on the evolution of these disharmonies by means of Bayesian statistics. We show that untreated subjects develop different Class III craniofacial growth patterns as compared to patients submitted to orthodontic treatment with rapid maxillary expansion and facemask therapy. Among treated patients the CoA segment (the maxillary length) and the ANB angle (the antero-posterior relation of the maxilla to the mandible) seem to be the skeletal subspaces that receive the main effect of the treatment.",
    	author = "Scutari, Marco and Auconi, Pietro and Caldarelli, Guido and Franchi, Lorenzo",
    	doi = "10.1038/s41598-017-15293-w",
    	issn = "2045-2322",
    	journal = "SCIENTIFIC REPORTS",
    	month = "nov",
    	title = "{Bayesian Networks Analysis of Malocclusion Data}",
    	volume = 7,
    	year = 2017
    }
    
  2. Tiziano Squartini, Assaf Almog, Guido Caldarelli, Iman Lelyveld, Diego Garlaschelli and Giulio Cimini. Enhanced capital-asset pricing model for the reconstruction of bipartite financial networks. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 96(3), September 2017. DOI BibTeX

    @article{ISI:000411991200003,
    	abstract = "Reconstructing patterns of interconnections from partial information is one of the most important issues in the statistical physics of complex networks. A paramount example is provided by financial networks. In fact, the spreading and amplification of financial distress in capital markets are strongly affected by the interconnections among financial institutions. Yet, while the aggregate balance sheets of institutions are publicly disclosed, information on single positions is mostly confidential and, as such, unavailable. Standard approaches to reconstruct the network of financial interconnection produce unrealistically dense topologies, leading to a biased estimation of systemic risk. Moreover, reconstruction techniques are generally designed for monopartite networks of bilateral exposures between financial institutions, thus failing in reproducing bipartite networks of security holdings (e.g., investment portfolios). Here we propose a reconstruction method based on constrained entropy maximization, tailored for bipartite financial networks. Such a procedure enhances the traditional capital-asset pricing model (CAPM) and allows us to reproduce the correct topology of the network. We test this enhanced CAPM (ECAPM) method on a dataset, collected by the European Central Bank, of detailed security holdings of European institutional sectors over a period of six years (2009-2015). Our approach outperforms the traditional CAPM and the recently proposed maximum-entropy CAPM both in reproducing the network topology and in estimating systemic risk due to fire sales spillovers. In general, ECAPM can be applied to the whole class of weighted bipartite networks described by the fitness model.",
    	author = "Squartini, Tiziano and Almog, Assaf and Caldarelli, Guido and van Lelyveld, Iman and Garlaschelli, Diego and Cimini, Giulio",
    	doi = "10.1103/PhysRevE.96.032315",
    	issn = "2470-0045",
    	journal = "PHYSICAL REVIEW E",
    	month = "sep",
    	number = 3,
    	title = "{Enhanced capital-asset pricing model for the reconstruction of bipartite financial networks}",
    	volume = 96,
    	year = 2017
    }
    
  3. Gianna Vivaldo, Elisa Masi, Cosimo Taiti, Guido Caldarelli and Stefano Mancuso. The network of plants volatile organic compounds. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS 7, September 2017. DOI BibTeX

    @article{ISI:000409841100112,
    	abstract = "Plants emission of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) is involved in a wide class of ecological functions, as VOCs play a crucial role in plants interactions with biotic and abiotic factors. Accordingly, they vary widely across species and underpin differences in ecological strategy. In this paper, VOCs spontaneously emitted by 109 plant species (belonging to 56 different families) have been qualitatively and quantitatively analysed in order to provide an alternative classification of plants species. In particular, by using bipartite networks methodology from Complex Network Theory, and through the application of community detection algorithms, we show that is possible to classify species according to chemical classes such as terpenes and sulfur compounds. Such complex network analysis allows to uncover hidden plants relationships related to their evolutionary and adaptation to the environment story.",
    	author = "Vivaldo, Gianna and Masi, Elisa and Taiti, Cosimo and Caldarelli, Guido and Mancuso, Stefano",
    	doi = "10.1038/s41598-017-10975-x",
    	issn = "2045-2322",
    	journal = "SCIENTIFIC REPORTS",
    	month = "sep",
    	title = "{The network of plants volatile organic compounds}",
    	volume = 7,
    	year = 2017
    }
    
  4. Mika J Straka, Guido Caldarelli and Fabio Saracco. Grand canonical validation of the bipartite international trade network. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 96(2), August 2017. DOI BibTeX

    @article{ISI:000407098400004,
    	abstract = "Devising strategies for economic development in a globally competitive landscape requires a solid and unbiased understanding of countries' technological advancements and similarities among export products. Both can be addressed through the bipartite representation of the International Trade Network. In this paper, we apply the recently proposed grand canonical projection algorithm to uncover country and product communities. Contrary to past endeavors, our methodology, based on information theory, creates monopartite projections in an unbiased and analytically tractable way. Single links between countries or products represent statistically significant signals, which are not accounted for by null models such as the bipartite configuration model. We find stable country communities reflecting the socioeconomic distinction in developed, newly industrialized, and developing countries. Furthermore, we observe product clusters based on the aforementioned country groups. Our analysis reveals the existence of a complicated structure in the bipartite International Trade Network: apart from the diversification of export baskets from the most basic to the most exclusive products, we observe a statistically significant signal of an export specialization mechanism towards more sophisticated products.",
    	author = "Straka, Mika J and Caldarelli, Guido and Saracco, Fabio",
    	doi = "10.1103/PhysRevE.96.022306",
    	issn = "2470-0045",
    	journal = "PHYSICAL REVIEW E",
    	month = "aug",
    	number = 2,
    	title = "{Grand canonical validation of the bipartite international trade network}",
    	volume = 96,
    	year = 2017
    }
    
  5. Pietro Auconi, Marco Scazzocchio, Guido Caldarelli, Michele Nieri, James A McNamara and Lorenzo Franchi. Understanding interactions among cephalometrics variables during growth in untreated Class III subjects. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ORTHODONTICS 39(4):395–401, August 2017. DOI BibTeX

    @article{ISI:000407226400008,
    	abstract = "Objective: The aim of the present study was to apply a computational method commonly used in data mining discipline, classification trees (CTs), to evaluate the growth features in untreated Class III subjects. Materials and methods: CT was applied to data from 91 untreated Class III subjects (48 females and 43 males) and compared with the results of discriminant analysis (DA). For all subjects, lateral cephalograms were available at T1 (mean age 10.4 +/- 2.0 years) and at T2 (mean age 15.4 +/- 1.9 years). A cephalometric analysis comprising 11 variables was performed. The subjects were divided into two subgroups, unfavourable ('Bad') and favourable ('Good') growers, according to the quality of the skeletal growth rate in comparison with the normal craniofacial growth. Results: CTs showed that the most informative attribute for the prediction of favourable/unfavourable skeletal growth was the SNA angle. Subjects with SNA values lower than 79.1 degrees showed a risk of 94 per cent of growing unfavourably. DA was able to select palatal plane to mandibular plane angle as predictors. DA, however, showed a statistically significant higher rate of misclassification when compared with CTs (40.7 per cent versus 12.1 per cent, binomial exact test: odds ratio = 6.20; P {\textless} 0.0001). Conclusions: CTs provided a valid measure of elucidating the effective contribution of craniofacial characteristics in predicting favourable/unfavourable growth in untreated Class III subjects.",
    	author = "Auconi, Pietro and Scazzocchio, Marco and Caldarelli, Guido and Nieri, Michele and McNamara, James A and Franchi, Lorenzo",
    	doi = "10.1093/ejo/cjw084",
    	issn = "0141-5387",
    	journal = "EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ORTHODONTICS",
    	month = "aug",
    	number = 4,
    	pages = "395--401",
    	title = "{Understanding interactions among cephalometrics variables during growth in untreated Class III subjects}",
    	volume = 39,
    	year = 2017
    }
    
  6. Fabiana Zollo, Alessandro Bessi, Michela Del Vicario, Antonio Scala, Guido Caldarelli, Louis Shekhtman, Shlomo Havlin and Walter Quattrociocchi. Debunking in a world of tribes. PLOS ONE 12(7), July 2017. DOI BibTeX

    @article{ISI:000406362700076,
    	abstract = "Social media aggregate people around common interests eliciting collective framing of narratives and worldviews. However, in such a disintermediated environment misinformation is pervasive and attempts to debunk are often undertaken to contrast this trend. In this work, we examine the effectiveness of debunking on Facebook through a quantitative analysis of 54 million users over a time span of five years (Jan 2010, Dec 2014). In particular, we compare how users usually consuming proven (scientific) and unsubstantiated (conspiracy-like) information on Facebook US interact with specific debunking posts. Our findings confirm the existence of echo chambers where users interact primarily with either conspiracy-like or scientific pages. However, both groups interact similarly with the information within their echo chamber. Then, we measure how users from both echo chambers interacted with 50,220 debunking posts accounting for both users consumption patterns and the sentiment expressed in their comments. Sentiment analysis reveals a dominant negativity in the comments to debunking posts. Furthermore, such posts remain mainly confined to the scientific echo chamber. Only few conspiracy users engage with corrections and their liking and commenting rates on conspiracy posts increases after the interaction.",
    	author = "Zollo, Fabiana and Bessi, Alessandro and {Del Vicario}, Michela and Scala, Antonio and Caldarelli, Guido and Shekhtman, Louis and Havlin, Shlomo and Quattrociocchi, Walter",
    	doi = "10.1371/journal.pone.0181821",
    	issn = "1932-6203",
    	journal = "PLOS ONE",
    	month = "jul",
    	number = 7,
    	title = "{Debunking in a world of tribes}",
    	volume = 12,
    	year = 2017
    }
    
  7. Rossana Mastrandrea, Andrea Gabrielli, Fabrizio Piras, Gianfranco Spalletta, Guido Caldarelli and Tommaso Gili. Organization and hierarchy of the human functional brain network lead to a chain-like core. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS 7, July 2017. DOI BibTeX

    @article{ISI:000404970900050,
    	abstract = "The brain is a paradigmatic example of a complex system: its functionality emerges as a global property of local mesoscopic and microscopic interactions. Complex network theory allows to elicit the functional architecture of the brain in terms of links (correlations) between nodes (grey matter regions) and to extract information out of the noise. Here we present the analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging data from forty healthy humans at rest for the investigation of the basal scaffold of the functional brain network organization. We show how brain regions tend to coordinate by forming a highly hierarchical chain-like structure of homogeneously clustered anatomical areas. A maximum spanning tree approach revealed the centrality of the occipital cortex and the peculiar aggregation of cerebellar regions to form a closed core. We also report the hierarchy of network segregation and the level of clusters integration as a function of the connectivity strength between brain regions.",
    	author = "Mastrandrea, Rossana and Gabrielli, Andrea and Piras, Fabrizio and Spalletta, Gianfranco and Caldarelli, Guido and Gili, Tommaso",
    	doi = "10.1038/s41598-017-04716-3",
    	issn = "2045-2322",
    	journal = "SCIENTIFIC REPORTS",
    	month = "jul",
    	title = "{Organization and hierarchy of the human functional brain network lead to a chain-like core}",
    	volume = 7,
    	year = 2017
    }
    
  8. Michela Del Vicario, Fabiana Zollo, Guido Caldarelli, Antonio Scala and Walter Quattrociocchi. Mapping social dynamics on Facebook: The Brexit debate. SOCIAL NETWORKS 50:6–16, July 2017. DOI BibTeX

    @article{ISI:000403527900002,
    	abstract = "Nowadays users get informed and shape their opinion through social media. However, the disintermediated access to contents does not guarantee quality of information. Selective exposure and confirmation bias, indeed, have been shown to play a pivotal role in content consumption and information spreading. Users tend to select information adhering (and reinforcing) their worldview and to ignore dissenting information. This pattern elicits the formation of polarized groups - i.e., echo chambers where the interaction with like-minded people might even reinforce polarization. In this work we address news consumption around Brexit in UK on Facebook. In particular, we perform a massive analysis on more than I million users interacting with Brexit related posts from the main news providers between January and July 2016. We show that consumption patterns elicit the emergence of two distinct communities of news outlets. Furthermore, to better characterize inner group dynamics, we introduce a new technique which combines automatic topic extraction and sentiment analysis. We compare how the same topics are presented on posts and the related emotional response on comments finding significant differences in both echo chambers and that polarization influences the perception of topics. Our results provide important insights about the determinants of polarization and evolution of core narratives on online debating. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.",
    	author = "{Del Vicario}, Michela and Zollo, Fabiana and Caldarelli, Guido and Scala, Antonio and Quattrociocchi, Walter",
    	doi = "10.1016/j.socnet.2017.02.002",
    	issn = "0378-8733",
    	journal = "SOCIAL NETWORKS",
    	month = "jul",
    	pages = "6--16",
    	title = "{Mapping social dynamics on Facebook: The Brexit debate}",
    	volume = 50,
    	year = 2017
    }
    
  9. Fabio Saracco, Mika J Straka, Riccardo Di Clemente, Andrea Gabrielli, Guido Caldarelli and Tiziano Squartini. Inferring monopartite projections of bipartite networks: an entropy-based approach. NEW JOURNAL OF PHYSICS 19, May 2017. DOI BibTeX

    @article{ISI:000402532100008,
    	abstract = "Bipartite networks are currently regarded as providing a major insight into the organization of many real-world systems, unveiling the mechanisms driving the interactions occurring between distinct groups of nodes. One of the most important issues encountered when modeling bipartite networks is devising a way to obtain a (monopartite) projection on the layer of interest, which preserves as much as possible the information encoded into the original bipartite structure. In the present paper we propose an algorithm to obtain statistically-validated projections of bipartite networks, according to which any two nodes sharing a statistically-significant number of neighbors are linked. Since assessing the statistical significance of nodes similarity requires a proper statistical benchmark, here we consider a set of four null models, defined within the exponential random graph framework. Our algorithm outputs a matrix of link-specific p-values, from which a validated projection is straightforwardly obtainable, upon running a multiple hypothesis testing procedure. Finally, we test our method on an economic network (i.e.the countries-products World Trade Web representation) and a social network (i.e. MovieLens, collecting the users' ratings of a list of movies). In both cases non-trivial communities are detected: while projecting the World Trade Web on the countries layer reveals modules of similarly-industrialized nations, projecting it on the products layer allows communities characterized by an increasing level of complexity to be detected; in the second case, projecting MovieLens on the films layer allows clusters of movies whose affinity cannot be fully accounted for by genre similarity to be individuated.",
    	author = "Saracco, Fabio and Straka, Mika J and {Di Clemente}, Riccardo and Gabrielli, Andrea and Caldarelli, Guido and Squartini, Tiziano",
    	doi = "10.1088/1367-2630/aa6b38",
    	issn = "1367-2630",
    	journal = "NEW JOURNAL OF PHYSICS",
    	month = "may",
    	title = "{Inferring monopartite projections of bipartite networks: an entropy-based approach}",
    	volume = 19,
    	year = 2017
    }
    
  10. Ana Lucía Schmidt, Fabiana Zollo, Michela Del Vicario, Alessandro Bessi, Antonio Scala, Guido Caldarelli, Eugene H Stanley and Walter Quattrociocchi. Anatomy of news consumption on Facebook. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 114(12):3035–3039, March 2017. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{Schmidt2017,
    	abstract = {The advent of social media and microblogging platforms has radically changed the way we consume information and form opinions. In this paper, we explore the anatomy of the information space on Facebook by characterizing on a global scale the news consumption patterns of 376 million users over a time span of 6 y (January 2010 to December 2015). We find that users tend to focus on a limited set of pages, producing a sharp community structure among news outlets. We also find that the preferences of users and news providers differ. By tracking how Facebook pages "like" each other and examining their geolocation, we find that news providers are more geographically confined than users. We devise a simple model of selective exposure that reproduces the observed connectivity patterns.},
    	archiveprefix = "arXiv",
    	arxivid = "arXiv:1510.04267",
    	author = "Schmidt, Ana Luc{\'{i}}a and Zollo, Fabiana and Vicario, Michela Del and Bessi, Alessandro and Scala, Antonio and Caldarelli, Guido and Stanley, H Eugene and Quattrociocchi, Walter",
    	doi = "10.1073/PNAS.1617052114",
    	eprint = "arXiv:1510.04267",
    	issn = "0027-8424",
    	journal = "Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences",
    	keywords = "Facebook,computational social science,misinformation,news consumption",
    	month = "mar",
    	number = 12,
    	pages = "3035--3039",
    	pmid = 28265082,
    	publisher = "National Academy of Sciences",
    	title = "{Anatomy of news consumption on Facebook}",
    	url = "http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28265082 http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=PMC5373354 http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2017/02/28/1617052114.full?sid=ca1f7a2e-9c7e-4696-8f78-47252b031544",
    	volume = 114,
    	year = 2017
    }
    
  11. Matteo Serri, Guido Caldarelli and Giulio Cimini. How the interbank market becomes systemically dangerous: an agent-based network model of financial distress propagation. Journal of Network Theory in Finance 3(1):1–18, November 2017. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{Serri2016,
    	abstract = "Assessing the stability of economic systems is a fundamental research focus in economics, that has become increasingly interdisciplinary in the currently troubled economic situation. In particular, much attention has been devoted to the interbank lending market as an important diffusion channel for financial distress during the recent crisis. In this work we study the stability of the interbank market to exogenous shocks using an agent-based network framework. Our model encompasses several ingredients that have been recognized in the literature as pro-cyclical triggers of financial distress in the banking system: credit and liquidity shocks through bilateral exposures, liquidity hoarding due to counterparty creditworthiness deterioration, target leveraging policies and fire-sales spillovers. But we exclude the possibility of central authorities intervention. We implement this framework on a dataset of 183 European banks that were publicly traded between 2004 and 2013. We document the extreme fragility of the interbank lending market up to 2008, when a systemic crisis leads to total depletion of market equity with an increasing speed of market collapse. After the crisis instead the system is more resilient to systemic events in terms of residual market equity. However, the speed at which the crisis breaks out reaches a new maximum in 2011, and never goes back to values observed before 2007. Our analysis points to the key role of the crisis outbreak speed, which sets the maximum delay for central authorities intervention to be effective.",
    	author = "Serri, Matteo and Caldarelli, Guido and Cimini, Giulio",
    	doi = "http://doi.org/10.21314/JNTF.2017.025",
    	journal = "Journal of Network Theory in Finance",
    	month = "nov",
    	number = 1,
    	pages = "1--18",
    	title = "{How the interbank market becomes systemically dangerous: an agent-based network model of financial distress propagation}",
    	url = "http://arxiv.org/abs/1611.04311",
    	volume = 3,
    	year = 2017
    }
    
  12. Marco Bardoscia, Stefano Battiston, Fabio Caccioli and Guido Caldarelli. Pathways towards instability in financial networks. Nature Communications (0):7, 2017. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{bardoscia2016paths,
    	abstract = "There is growing consensus that processes of market integration and risk diversification may come at the price of more systemic risk. Indeed, financial institutions are interconnected in a network of contracts where distress can either be amplified or dampened. However, a mathematical understanding of instability in relation to the network topology is still lacking. In a model financial network, we show that the origin of instability resides in the presence of specific types of cyclical structures, regardless of many of the details of the distress propagation mechanism. In particular, we show the existence of trajectories in the space of graphs along which a complex network turns from stable to unstable, although at each point along the trajectory its nodes satisfy constraints that would apparently make them individually stable. In the financial context, our findings have important implications for policies aimed at increasing financial stability. We illustrate the propositions on a sample dataset for the top 50 EU listed banks between 2008 and 2013. More in general, our results shed light on previous findings on the instability of model ecosystems and are relevant for a broad class of dynamical processes on complex networks.",
    	annote = "NULL",
    	archiveprefix = "arXiv",
    	arxivid = "1602.05883",
    	author = "Bardoscia, Marco and Battiston, Stefano and Caccioli, Fabio and Caldarelli, Guido",
    	doi = "doi:10.1038/ncomms14416",
    	eprint = "1602.05883",
    	journal = "Nature Communications",
    	keywords = "DOLFINS{\_}T1.4,DOLFINS{\_}T2.1,DOLFINS{\_}WP1,DOLFINS{\_}WP2",
    	mendeley-tags = "DOLFINS{\_}T1.4,DOLFINS{\_}T2.1,DOLFINS{\_}WP1,DOLFINS{\_}WP2",
    	number = 0,
    	pages = 7,
    	title = "{Pathways towards instability in financial networks}",
    	url = "http://arxiv.org/abs/1602.05883 https://arxiv.org/abs/1602.05883",
    	year = 2017
    }
    
  13. Michela Del Vicario, Antonio Scala, Guido Caldarelli, Eugene H Stanley and Walter Quattrociocchi. Modeling confirmation bias and polarization. Scientific Reports 7:40391, June 2017. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{DelVicario2016a,
    	abstract = "Online users tend to select claims that adhere to their system of beliefs and to ignore dissenting information. Confirmation bias, indeed, plays a pivotal role in viral phenomena. Furthermore, the wide availability of content on the web fosters the aggregation of likeminded people where debates tend to enforce group polarization. Such a configuration might alter the public debate and thus the formation of the public opinion. In this paper we provide a mathematical model to study online social debates and the related polarization dynamics. We assume the basic updating rule of the Bounded Confidence Model (BCM) and we develop two variations a) the Rewire with Bounded Confidence Model (RBCM), in which discordant links are broken until convergence is reached; and b) the Unbounded Confidence Model, under which the interaction among discordant pairs of users is allowed even with a negative feedback, either with the rewiring step (RUCM) or without it (UCM). From numerical simulations we find that the new models (UCM and RUCM), unlike the BCM, are able to explain the coexistence of two stable final opinions, often observed in reality. Lastly, we present a mean field approximation of the newly introduced models.",
    	author = "{Del Vicario}, Michela and Scala, Antonio and Caldarelli, Guido and Stanley, H Eugene and Quattrociocchi, Walter",
    	doi = "http://doi.org/10.1038/srep40391",
    	journal = "Scientific Reports",
    	month = "jun",
    	pages = 40391,
    	title = "{Modeling confirmation bias and polarization}",
    	url = "http://arxiv.org/abs/1607.00022",
    	volume = 7,
    	year = 2017
    }
    
  14. Michela Del Vicario, Qian Zhang, Alessandro Bessi, Guido Caldarelli and Fabiana Zollo. Structural Patterns of the Occupy Movement on Facebook. In Hocine Cherifi, Sabrina Gaito, Walter Quattrociocchi and Alessandra Sala (eds.). Complex Networks & Their Applications V: Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Complex Networks and their Applications (COMPLEX NETWORKS 2016). Springer International Publishing, 2017, pages 595–606. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @incollection{DelVicario2017,
    	address = "Cham",
    	author = "{Del Vicario}, Michela and Zhang, Qian and Bessi, Alessandro and Caldarelli, Guido and Zollo, Fabiana",
    	booktitle = "Complex Networks {\&} Their Applications V: Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Complex Networks and their Applications (COMPLEX NETWORKS 2016)",
    	doi = "10.1007/978-3-319-50901-3_47",
    	editor = "Cherifi, Hocine and Gaito, Sabrina and Quattrociocchi, Walter and Sala, Alessandra",
    	isbn = "978-3-319-50901-3",
    	pages = "595--606",
    	publisher = "Springer International Publishing",
    	title = "{Structural Patterns of the Occupy Movement on Facebook}",
    	url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-50901-3{\_}47",
    	year = 2017
    }
    
  15. Aurelio Patelli, Giulio Cimini, Emanuele Pugliese and Andrea Gabrielli. The scientific influence of nations on global scientific and technological development. JOURNAL OF INFORMETRICS 11(4):1229–1237, November 2017. DOI BibTeX

    @article{ISI:000418020600022,
    	abstract = "Determining how scientific achievements influence the subsequent process of knowledge creation is a fundamental step in order to build a unified ecosystem for studying the dynamics of innovation and competitiveness. Relying separately on data about scientific production on one side, through bibliometric indicators, and about technological advancements on the other side, through patents statistics, gives only a limited insight on the key interplay between science and technology which, as a matter of fact, move forward together within the innovation space. In this paper, using citation data of both research papers and patents, we quantify the direct influence of the scientific outputs of nations on further advancements in science and on the introduction of new technologies. Our analysis highlights the presence of geo-cultural clusters of nations with similar innovation system features, and unveils the heterogeneous coupled dynamics of scientific and technological advancements. This study represents a step forward in the buildup of an inclusive framework for knowledge creation and innovation. (c) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.",
    	author = "Patelli, Aurelio and Cimini, Giulio and Pugliese, Emanuele and Gabrielli, Andrea",
    	doi = "10.1016/j.joi.2017.10.005",
    	issn = "1751-1577",
    	journal = "JOURNAL OF INFORMETRICS",
    	month = "nov",
    	number = 4,
    	pages = "1229--1237",
    	title = "{The scientific influence of nations on global scientific and technological development}",
    	volume = 11,
    	year = 2017
    }
    
  16. Giulio Cimini. Evolutionary Network Games: Equilibria from Imitation and Best Response Dynamics. COMPLEXITY, 2017. DOI BibTeX

    @article{ISI:000408199800001,
    	abstract = "We consider games of strategic substitutes and complements on networks and introduce two evolutionary dynamics in order to refine their multiplicity of equilibria. Within mean field, we find that for the best-shot game, taken as a representative example of strategic substitutes, replicator-like dynamics does not lead to Nash equilibria, whereas it leads to a unique equilibrium for complements, represented by a coordination game. On the other hand, when the dynamics becomes more cognitively demanding, predictions are always Nash equilibria: for the best-shot game we find a reduced set of equilibria with a definite value of the fraction of contributors, whereas, for the coordination game, symmetric equilibria arise only for low or high initial fractions of cooperators. We further extend our study by considering complex topologies through heterogeneous mean field and show that the nature of the selected equilibria does not change for the best-shot game. However, for coordination games, we reveal an important difference: on infinitely large scale-free networks, cooperative equilibria arise for any value of the incentive to cooperate. Our analytical results are confirmed by numerical simulations and open the question of whether there can be dynamics that consistently leads to stringent equilibria refinements for both classes of games.",
    	author = "Cimini, Giulio",
    	doi = "10.1155/2017/7259032",
    	issn = "1076-2787",
    	journal = "COMPLEXITY",
    	title = "{Evolutionary Network Games: Equilibria from Imitation and Best Response Dynamics}",
    	year = 2017
    }
    
  17. Assaf Almog, Tiziano Squartini and Diego Garlaschelli. The double role of GDP in shaping the structure of the International Trade Network. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTATIONAL ECONOMICS AND ECONOMETRICS 7(4):381–398, 2017. BibTeX

    @article{ISI:000416359800003,
    	abstract = "The International Trade Network (ITN) is the network formed by trade relationships between world countries. The complex structure of the ITN impacts important economic processes such as globalization, competitiveness, and the propagation of instabilities. Modeling the structure of the ITN in terms of simple macroeconomic quantities is therefore of paramount importance. While traditional macroeconomics has mainly used the Gravity Model to characterize the magnitude of trade volumes, modern network theory has predominantly focused on modeling the topology of the ITN. Combining these two complementary approaches is still an open problem. Here we review these approaches and emphasize the double role played by GDP in empirically determining both the existence and the volume of trade linkages. Moreover, we discuss a unified model that exploits these patterns and uses only the GDP as the relevant macroeconomic factor for reproducing both the topology and the link weights of the ITN.",
    	author = "Almog, Assaf and Squartini, Tiziano and Garlaschelli, Diego",
    	issn = "1757-1170",
    	journal = "INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTATIONAL ECONOMICS AND ECONOMETRICS",
    	number = 4,
    	pages = "381--398",
    	title = "{The double role of GDP in shaping the structure of the International Trade Network}",
    	volume = 7,
    	year = 2017
    }
    
  18. Marco Duenas, Rossana Mastrandrea, Matteo Barigozzi and Giorgio Fagiolo. Spatio-Temporal Patterns of the International Merger and Acquisition Network. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS 7, September 2017. DOI BibTeX

    @article{ISI:000409561800042,
    	abstract = "This paper analyses the world web of mergers and acquisitions (M{\&}As) using a complex network approach. We use data of M{\&}As to build a temporal sequence of binary and weighted-directed networks for the period 1995-2010 and 224 countries (nodes) connected according to their M{\&}As flows (links). We study different geographical and temporal aspects of the international M{\&}A network (IMAN), building sequences of filtered sub-networks whose links belong to specific intervals of distance or time. Given that M{\&}As and trade are complementary ways of reaching foreign markets, we perform our analysis using statistics employed for the study of the international trade network (ITN), highlighting the similarities and differences between the ITN and the IMAN. In contrast to the ITN, the IMAN is a low density network characterized by a persistent giant component with many external nodes and low reciprocity. Clustering patterns are very heterogeneous and dynamic. High-income economies are the main acquirers and are characterized by high connectivity, implying that most countries are targets of a few acquirers. Like in the ITN, geographical distance strongly impacts the structure of the IMAN: link-weights and node degrees have a non-linear relation with distance, and an assortative pattern is present at short distances.",
    	author = "Duenas, Marco and Mastrandrea, Rossana and Barigozzi, Matteo and Fagiolo, Giorgio",
    	doi = "10.1038/s41598-017-10779-z",
    	issn = "2045-2322",
    	journal = "SCIENTIFIC REPORTS",
    	month = "sep",
    	title = "{Spatio-Temporal Patterns of the International Merger and Acquisition Network}",
    	volume = 7,
    	year = 2017
    }
    

  1. Antonio Scala, Vinko Zlatic, Guido Caldarelli and Gregorio D'Agostino. Mitigating cascades in sandpile models: an immunization strategy for systemic risk?. EUROPEAN PHYSICAL JOURNAL-SPECIAL TOPICS 225(10):2017–2023, October 2016. DOI BibTeX

    @article{ISI:000386269200010,
    	abstract = "We use a simple model of distress propagation (the sandpile model) to show how financial systems are naturally subject to the risk of systemic failures. Taking into account possible network structures among financial institutions, we investigate if simple policies can limit financial distress propagation to avoid system-wide crises, i.e. to dampen systemic risk. We therefore compare different immunization policies (i.e. targeted helps to financial institutions) and find that the information coming from the network topology allows to mitigate systemic cascades by targeting just few institutions.",
    	author = "Scala, Antonio and Zlatic, Vinko and Caldarelli, Guido and D'Agostino, Gregorio",
    	doi = "10.1140/epjst/e2016-60001-7",
    	issn = "1951-6355",
    	journal = "EUROPEAN PHYSICAL JOURNAL-SPECIAL TOPICS",
    	month = "oct",
    	number = 10,
    	pages = "2017--2023",
    	title = "{Mitigating cascades in sandpile models: an immunization strategy for systemic risk?}",
    	volume = 225,
    	year = 2016
    }
    
  2. Alessandro Bessi, Fabio Petroni, Michela Del Vicario, Fabiana Zollo, Aris Anagnostopoulos, Antonio Scala, Guido Caldarelli and Walter Quattrociocchi. Homophily and polarization in the age of misinformation. EUROPEAN PHYSICAL JOURNAL-SPECIAL TOPICS 225(10):2047–2059, October 2016. DOI BibTeX

    @article{ISI:000386269200013,
    	abstract = "The World Economic Forum listed massive digital misinformation as one of the main threats for our society. The spreading of unsubstantiated rumors may have serious consequences on public opinion such as in the case of rumors about Ebola causing disruption to health-care workers. In this work we target Facebook to characterize information consumption patterns of 1.2M Italian users with respect to verified (science news) and unverified (conspiracy news) contents. Through a thorough quantitative analysis we provide important insights about the anatomy of the system across which misinformation might spread. In particular, we show that users' engagement on verified (or unverified) content correlates with the number of friends having similar consumption patterns (homophily). Finally, we measure how this social system responded to the injection of 4, 709 false information. We find that the frequent (and selective) exposure to specific kind of content (polarization) is a good proxy for the detection of homophile clusters where certain kind of rumors are more likely to spread.",
    	author = "Bessi, Alessandro and Petroni, Fabio and {Del Vicario}, Michela and Zollo, Fabiana and Anagnostopoulos, Aris and Scala, Antonio and Caldarelli, Guido and Quattrociocchi, Walter",
    	doi = "10.1140/epjst/e2015-50319-0",
    	issn = "1951-6355",
    	journal = "EUROPEAN PHYSICAL JOURNAL-SPECIAL TOPICS",
    	month = "oct",
    	number = 10,
    	pages = "2047--2059",
    	title = "{Homophily and polarization in the age of misinformation}",
    	volume = 225,
    	year = 2016
    }
    
  3. Guido Caldarelli and Alessandro Chessa. Data Science and Complex Networks Real Cases Studies with Python Preface. In DATA SCIENCE AND COMPLEX NETWORKS: REAL CASES STUDIES WITH PYTHON. 2016. BibTeX

    @incollection{ISI:000401450300001,
    	author = "Caldarelli, Guido and Chessa, Alessandro",
    	booktitle = "DATA SCIENCE AND COMPLEX NETWORKS: REAL CASES STUDIES WITH PYTHON",
    	isbn = "978-0-19-963960-1",
    	title = "{Data Science and Complex Networks Real Cases Studies with Python Preface}",
    	year = 2016
    }
    
  4. Stefano Battiston, Guido Caldarelli, Marco D'Errico and Stefano Gurciullo. Leveraging the network : a stress-test framework based on DebtRank. Statistics and Risk Modeling, pages 1–33, 2016. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{battiston2016leveraging,
    	abstract = "We develop a novel stress-test framework to monitor systemic risk in financial systems. The modular structure of the framework allows to accommodate for a variety of shock scenarios, methods to estimate interbank exposures and mecha-nisms of distress propagation. The main features are as follows. First, the frame-work allows to estimate and disentangle not only first-round effects (i.e. shock on external assets) and second-round effects (i.e. distress induced in the interbank network), but also third-round effects induced by possible fire sales. Second, it allows to monitor at the same time the impact of shocks on individual or groups of financial institutions as well as their vulnerability to shocks on counterparties or certain asset classes. Third, it includes estimates for loss distributions, thus combining network effects with familiar risk measures such as VaR and CVaR. Fourth, in order to perform robustness analyses and cope with incomplete data, the framework features a module for the generation of sets of networks of inter-bank exposures that are coherent with the total lending and borrowing of each bank. As an illustration, we carry out a stress–test exercise on a dataset of listed European banks over the years 2008-2013. We find that second-round and third-round effects dominate first-round effects, therefore suggesting that most current stress-test frameworks might lead to a severe underestimation of systemic risk.",
    	archiveprefix = "arXiv",
    	arxivid = "arXiv:1503.00621v1",
    	author = "Battiston, Stefano and Caldarelli, Guido and D'Errico, Marco and Gurciullo, Stefano",
    	doi = "10.2139/ssrn.2571218",
    	eprint = "arXiv:1503.00621v1",
    	issn = "1556-5068",
    	journal = "Statistics and Risk Modeling",
    	keywords = "balance-sheets,battiston{\_}journals,contagion,financial networks,stress-tests,systemic risk",
    	mendeley-tags = "battiston{\_}journals",
    	pages = "1--33",
    	title = "{Leveraging the network : a stress-test framework based on DebtRank}",
    	url = "http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract{\_}id=2571218",
    	year = 2016
    }
    
  5. Michela Del Vicario, Gianna Vivaldo, Alessandro Bessi, Fabiana Zollo, Antonio Scala, Guido Caldarelli and Walter Quattrociocchi. Echo Chambers: Emotional Contagion and Group Polarization on Facebook. Scientific Reports 6:37825, June 2016. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{DelVicario2016b,
    	abstract = "Recent findings showed that users on Facebook tend to select information that adhere to their system of beliefs and to form polarized groups -- i.e., echo chambers. Such a tendency dominates information cascades and might affect public debates on social relevant issues. In this work we explore the structural evolution of communities of interest by accounting for users emotions and engagement. Focusing on the Facebook pages reporting on scientific and conspiracy content, we characterize the evolution of the size of the two communities by fitting daily resolution data with three growth models -- i.e. the Gompertz model, the Logistic model, and the Log-logistic model. Then, we explore the interplay between emotional state and engagement of users in the group dynamics. Our findings show that communities' emotional behavior is affected by the users' involvement inside the echo chamber. Indeed, to an higher involvement corresponds a more negative approach. Moreover, we observe that, on average, more active users show a faster shift towards the negativity than less active ones.",
    	author = "{Del Vicario}, Michela and Vivaldo, Gianna and Bessi, Alessandro and Zollo, Fabiana and Scala, Antonio and Caldarelli, Guido and Quattrociocchi, Walter",
    	doi = "http://doi.org/10.1038/srep37825",
    	journal = "Scientific Reports",
    	month = "jun",
    	pages = 37825,
    	title = "{Echo Chambers: Emotional Contagion and Group Polarization on Facebook}",
    	url = "http://arxiv.org/abs/1607.01032",
    	volume = 6,
    	year = 2016
    }
    
  6. Mario Mureddu, Guido Caldarelli, Alfonso Damiano, Antonio Scala and Hildegard Meyer-Ortmanns. Islanding the power grid on the transmission level: less connections for more security. Scientific Reports 6:34797, 2016. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{mureddu2016islanding,
    	author = "Mureddu, Mario and Caldarelli, Guido and Damiano, Alfonso and Scala, Antonio and Meyer-Ortmanns, Hildegard",
    	doi = "10.1038/srep34797",
    	file = ":Users/Gcalda/Google Drive (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)/Mendeley Desktop/Mureddu et al/Scientific Reports/Mureddu et al. - 2016 - Islanding the power grid on the transmission level less connections for more security.pdf:pdf",
    	issn = "2045-2322",
    	journal = "Scientific Reports",
    	pages = 34797,
    	publisher = "Nature Publishing Group",
    	title = "{Islanding the power grid on the transmission level: less connections for more security}",
    	url = "http://www.nature.com/articles/srep34797",
    	volume = 6,
    	year = 2016
    }
    
  7. Marco Bardoscia, Fabio Caccioli, Juan Ignacio Perotti, Gianna Vivaldo and Guido Caldarelli. Distress propagation in complex networks: the case of non-linear DebtRank. PLoS ONE 11:e0163825, December 2016. URL BibTeX

    @article{bardoscia2015distress,
    	abstract = "We consider a dynamical model of distress propagation on complex networks, which we apply to the study of financial contagion in networks of banks connected to each other by direct exposures. The model that we consider is an extension of the DebtRank algorithm, recently introduced in the literature. The mechanics of distress propagation is very simple: When a bank suffers a loss, distress propagates to its creditors, who in turn suffer losses, and so on. The original DebtRank assumes that losses are propagated linearly between connected banks. Here we relax this assumption and introduce a one-parameter family of non-linear propagation functions. As a case study, we apply this algorithm to a data-set of 183 European banks, and we study how the stability of the system depends on the non-linearity parameter under different stress-test scenarios. We find that the system is characterized by a transition between a regime where small shocks can be amplified and a regime where shocks do not propagate, and that the overall the stability of the system increases between 2008 and 2013.",
    	archiveprefix = "arXiv",
    	arxivid = "1512.04460",
    	author = "Bardoscia, Marco and Caccioli, Fabio and Perotti, Juan Ignacio and Vivaldo, Gianna and Caldarelli, Guido",
    	eprint = "1512.04460",
    	file = ":Users/Gcalda/Google Drive (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)/Mendeley Desktop/Bardoscia et al/PLoS ONE/Bardoscia et al. - 2016 - Distress propagation in complex networks the case of non-linear DebtRank.pdf:pdf",
    	journal = "PLoS ONE",
    	month = "dec",
    	pages = "e0163825",
    	title = "{Distress propagation in complex networks: the case of non-linear DebtRank}",
    	url = "http://arxiv.org/abs/1512.04460",
    	volume = 11,
    	year = 2016
    }
    
  8. Stefano Battiston, Guido Caldarelli, Robert May, Tarik Roukny and Joseph Stiglitz. The Price of Complexity in Financial Networks. PNAS 110:10031–10036, 2016. BibTeX

    @article{Battiston2016,
    	author = "Battiston, Stefano and Caldarelli, Guido and May, Robert and Roukny, Tarik and Stiglitz, Joseph",
    	journal = "PNAS",
    	pages = "10031--10036",
    	title = "{The Price of Complexity in Financial Networks}",
    	volume = 110,
    	year = 2016
    }
    
  9. Alessandro Bessi, Fabiana Zollo, Michela Del Vicario, Michelangelo Puliga, Antonio Scala, Guido Caldarelli, Brian Uzzi and Walter Quattrociocchi. Users polarization on Facebook and Youtube. PLoS ONE 11(8):1–24, 2016. DOI BibTeX

    @article{bessi2016users,
    	abstract = "On social media algorithms for content promotion, accounting for users preferences, might limit the exposure to unsolicited contents. In this work, we study how the same contents (videos) are consumed on different platforms -- i.e. Facebook and YouTube -- over a sample of {\$}12M{\$} of users. Our findings show that the same content lead to the formation of echo chambers, irrespective of the online social network and thus of the algorithm for content promotion. Finally, we show that the users' commenting patterns are accurate early predictors for the formation of echo-chambers.",
    	archiveprefix = "arXiv",
    	arxivid = "1604.02705",
    	author = "Bessi, Alessandro and Zollo, Fabiana and {Del Vicario}, Michela and Puliga, Michelangelo and Scala, Antonio and Caldarelli, Guido and Uzzi, Brian and Quattrociocchi, Walter",
    	doi = "10.1371/journal.pone.0159641",
    	eprint = "1604.02705",
    	file = ":Users/Gcalda/Google Drive (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)/Mendeley Desktop/Bessi et al/PLoS ONE/Bessi et al. - 2016 - Users polarization on Facebook and Youtube.pdf:pdf",
    	issn = 19326203,
    	journal = "PLoS ONE",
    	number = 8,
    	pages = "1--24",
    	title = "{Users polarization on Facebook and Youtube}",
    	volume = 11,
    	year = 2016
    }
    
  10. Gianna Vivaldo, Elisa Masi, Camilla Pandolfi, Stefano Mancuso and Guido Caldarelli. Networks of plants: how to measure similarity in vegetable species. Nature Publishing Group (February):1–11, 2016. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{vivaldo2016networks,
    	abstract = "Despite the common misconception of nearly static organisms, plants do interact continuously with the environment and with each other. It is fair to assume that during their evolution they developed particular features to overcome problems and to exploit possibilities from environment. In this paper we introduce various quantitative measures based on recent advancements in complex network theory that allow to measure the effective similarities of various species. By using this approach on the similarity in fruit-typology ecological traits we obtain a clear plant classification in a way similar to traditional taxonomic classification. This result is not trivial, since a similar analysis done on the basis of diaspore morphological properties do not provide any clear parameter to classify plants species. Complex network theory can then be used in order to determine which feature amongst many can be used to distinguish scope and possibly evolution of plants. Future uses of this approach range from functional classification to quantitative determination of plant communities in nature.",
    	archiveprefix = "arXiv",
    	arxivid = "1602.05887",
    	author = "Vivaldo, Gianna and Masi, Elisa and Pandolfi, Camilla and Mancuso, Stefano and Caldarelli, Guido",
    	doi = "10.1038/srep27077",
    	eprint = "1602.05887",
    	file = ":Users/Gcalda/Google Drive (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)/Mendeley Desktop/Vivaldo et al/Nature Publishing Group/Vivaldo et al. - 2016 - Networks of plants how to measure similarity in vegetable species.pdf:pdf",
    	issn = "2045-2322",
    	journal = "Nature Publishing Group",
    	number = "February",
    	pages = "1--11",
    	publisher = "Nature Publishing Group",
    	title = "{Networks of plants: how to measure similarity in vegetable species}",
    	url = "http://arxiv.org/abs/1602.05887",
    	year = 2016
    }
    
  11. Young-Ho Eom, Stefano Boccaletti and Guido Caldarelli. Concurrent enhancement of percolation and synchronization in adaptive networks. Scientific Reports 6(January):27111, 2016. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{eom2016concurrent,
    	abstract = "Co-evolutionary adaptive mechanisms are not only ubiquitous in nature, but also beneficial for the functioning of a variety of systems. We here consider an adaptive network of oscillators with a stochastic, fitness-based, rule of connectivity, and show that it self-organizes from fragmented and incoherent states to connected and synchronized ones. The synchronization and percolation are associated to abrupt transitions, and they are concurrently (and significantly) enhanced as compared to the non-adaptive case. Finally we provide evidence that only partial adaptation is sufficient to determine these enhancements. Our study, therefore, indicates that inclusion of simple adaptive mechanisms can efficiently describe some emergent features of networked systems' collective behaviors, and suggests also self-organized ways to control synchronization and percolation in natural and social systems.",
    	archiveprefix = "arXiv",
    	arxivid = "1511.05468",
    	author = "Eom, Young-Ho and Boccaletti, Stefano and Caldarelli, Guido",
    	doi = "10.1038/srep27111",
    	eprint = "1511.05468",
    	file = ":Users/Gcalda/Google Drive (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)/Mendeley Desktop/Eom, Boccaletti, Caldarelli/Scientific Reports/Eom, Boccaletti, Caldarelli - 2016 - Concurrent enhancement of percolation and synchronization in adaptive networks.pdf:pdf",
    	issn = "2045-2322",
    	journal = "Scientific Reports",
    	number = "January",
    	pages = 27111,
    	publisher = "Nature Publishing Group",
    	title = "{Concurrent enhancement of percolation and synchronization in adaptive networks}",
    	url = "http://arxiv.org/abs/1511.05468{\%}5Cnhttp://www.nature.com/articles/srep27111",
    	volume = 6,
    	year = 2016
    }
    
  12. Antonio Scala, Pier Giorgio De Sanctis Lucentini, Guido Caldarelli and Gregorio D'Agostino. Cascades in interdependent flow networks. Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena 323-324:35–39, 2016. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{Scala2016,
    	abstract = "In this manuscript, we investigate the abrupt breakdown behavior of coupled distribution grids under load growth. This scenario mimics the ever-increasing customer demand and the foreseen introduction of energy hubs interconnecting the different energy vectors. We extend an analytical model of cascading behavior due to line overloads to the case of interdependent networks and find evidence of first order transitions due to the long-range nature of the flows. Our results indicate that the foreseen increase in the couplings between the grids has two competing effects: on the one hand, it increases the safety region where grids can operate without withstanding systemic failures; on the other hand, it increases the possibility of a joint systems' failure.",
    	archiveprefix = "arXiv",
    	arxivid = "1512.03088",
    	author = "Scala, Antonio and {De Sanctis Lucentini}, Pier Giorgio and Caldarelli, Guido and D'Agostino, Gregorio",
    	doi = "10.1016/j.physd.2015.10.010",
    	eprint = "1512.03088",
    	file = ":Users/Gcalda/Google Drive (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)/Mendeley Desktop/Scala et al/Physica D Nonlinear Phenomena/Scala et al. - 2016 - Cascades in interdependent flow networks.pdf:pdf",
    	issn = 01672789,
    	journal = "Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena",
    	keywords = "Complex networks,Interdependencies,Mean field models",
    	pages = "35--39",
    	publisher = "Elsevier B.V.",
    	title = "{Cascades in interdependent flow networks}",
    	url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physd.2015.10.010",
    	volume = "323-324",
    	year = 2016
    }
    
  13. Gabriele Ranco, Ilaria Bordino, Giacomo Bormetti, Guido Caldarelli, Fabrizio Lillo and Michele Treccani. Coupling News Sentiment with Web Browsing Data Improves Prediction of Intra-Day Price Dynamics.. PloS one 11(1):e0146576, 2016. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{Ranco2016,
    	abstract = {The new digital revolution of big data is deeply changing our capability of understanding society and forecasting the outcome of many social and economic systems. Unfortunately, information can be very heterogeneous in the importance, relevance, and surprise it conveys, affecting severely the predictive power of semantic and statistical methods. Here we show that the aggregation of web users' behavior can be elicited to overcome this problem in a hard to predict complex system, namely the financial market. Specifically, our in-sample analysis shows that the combined use of sentiment analysis of news and browsing activity of users of Yahoo! Finance greatly helps forecasting intra-day and daily price changes of a set of 100 highly capitalized US stocks traded in the period 2012-2013. Sentiment analysis or browsing activity when taken alone have very small or no predictive power. Conversely, when considering a news signal where in a given time interval we compute the average sentiment of the clicked news, weighted by the number of clicks, we show that for nearly 50{\%} of the companies such signal Granger-causes hourly price returns. Our result indicates a "wisdom-of-the-crowd" effect that allows to exploit users' activity to identify and weigh properly the relevant and surprising news, enhancing considerably the forecasting power of the news sentiment.},
    	archiveprefix = "arXiv",
    	arxivid = "1412.3948",
    	author = "Ranco, Gabriele and Bordino, Ilaria and Bormetti, Giacomo and Caldarelli, Guido and Lillo, Fabrizio and Treccani, Michele",
    	doi = "10.1371/journal.pone.0146576",
    	eprint = "1412.3948",
    	file = ":Users/Gcalda/Google Drive (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)/Mendeley Desktop/Ranco et al/PloS one/Ranco et al. - 2016 - Coupling News Sentiment with Web Browsing Data Improves Prediction of Intra-Day Price Dynamics.pdf:pdf",
    	issn = "1932-6203",
    	journal = "PloS one",
    	number = 1,
    	pages = "e0146576",
    	pmid = 26808833,
    	title = "{Coupling News Sentiment with Web Browsing Data Improves Prediction of Intra-Day Price Dynamics.}",
    	url = "http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0146576",
    	volume = 11,
    	year = 2016
    }
    
  14. Michela Del Vicario, Alessandro Bessi, Fabiana Zollo, Fabio Petroni, Antonio Scala, Guido Caldarelli, Eugene H Stanley and Walter Quattrociocchi. The spreading of misinformation online. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, page 201517441, 2016. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{DelVicario2016,
    	abstract = {SignificanceThe wide availability of user-provided content in online social media facilitates the aggregation of people around common interests, worldviews, and narratives. However, the World Wide Web is a fruitful environment for the massive diffusion of unverified rumors. In this work, using a massive quantitative analysis of Facebook, we show that information related to distinct narratives--conspiracy theories and scientific news--generates homogeneous and polarized communities (i.e., echo chambers) having similar information consumption patterns. Then, we derive a data-driven percolation model of rumor spreading that demonstrates that homogeneity and polarization are the main determinants for predicting cascades size. The wide availability of user-provided content in online social media facilitates the aggregation of people around common interests, worldviews, and narratives. However, the World Wide Web (WWW) also allows for the rapid dissemination of unsubstantiated rumors and conspiracy theories that often elicit rapid, large, but naive social responses such as the recent case of Jade Helm 15--where a simple military exercise turned out to be perceived as the beginning of a new civil war in the United States. In this work, we address the determinants governing misinformation spreading through a thorough quantitative analysis. In particular, we focus on how Facebook users consume information related to two distinct narratives: scientific and conspiracy news. We find that, although consumers of scientific and conspiracy stories present similar consumption patterns with respect to content, cascade dynamics differ. Selective exposure to content is the primary driver of content diffusion and generates the formation of homogeneous clusters, i.e., "echo chambers." Indeed, homogeneity appears to be the primary driver for the diffusion of contents and each echo chamber has its own cascade dynamics. Finally, we introduce a data-driven percolation model mimicking rumor spreading and we show that homogeneity and polarization are the main determinants for predicting cascades size.},
    	author = "{Del Vicario}, Michela and Bessi, Alessandro and Zollo, Fabiana and Petroni, Fabio and Scala, Antonio and Caldarelli, Guido and Stanley, H. Eugene and Quattrociocchi, Walter",
    	doi = "10.1073/pnas.1517441113",
    	issn = "0027-8424",
    	journal = "Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences",
    	keywords = "DOLFINS{\_}T3.1,DOLFINS{\_}WP3",
    	mendeley-tags = "DOLFINS{\_}T3.1,DOLFINS{\_}WP3",
    	pages = 201517441,
    	pmid = 24889601,
    	title = "{The spreading of misinformation online}",
    	url = "http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2016/01/02/1517441113.abstract",
    	year = 2016
    }
    
  15. Matus Medo and Giulio Cimini. Model-based evaluation of scientific impact indicators. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 94(3), September 2016. DOI BibTeX

    @article{ISI:000383342700004,
    	abstract = "Using bibliometric data artificially generated through a model of citation dynamics calibrated on empirical data, we compare several indicators for the scientific impact of individual researchers. The use of such a controlled setup has the advantage of avoiding the biases present in real databases, and it allows us to assess which aspects of the model dynamics and which traits of individual researchers a particular indicator actually reflects. We find that the simple average citation count of the authored papers performs well in capturing the intrinsic scientific ability of researchers, regardless of the length of their career. On the other hand, when productivity complements ability in the evaluation process, the notorious h and g indices reveal their potential, yet their normalized variants do not always yield a fair comparison between researchers at different career stages. Notably, the use of logarithmic units for citation counts allows us to build simple indicators with performance equal to that of h and g. Our analysis may provide useful hints for a proper use of bibliometric indicators. Additionally, our framework can be extended by including other aspects of the scientific production process and citation dynamics, with the potential to become a standard tool for the assessment of impact metrics.",
    	author = "Medo, Matus and Cimini, Giulio",
    	doi = "10.1103/PhysRevE.94.032312",
    	issn = "2470-0045",
    	journal = "PHYSICAL REVIEW E",
    	month = "sep",
    	number = 3,
    	title = "{Model-based evaluation of scientific impact indicators}",
    	volume = 94,
    	year = 2016
    }
    
  16. Giulio Cimini, Andrea Zaccaria and Andrea Gabrielli. Investigating the interplay between fundamentals of national research systems: Performance, investments and international collaborations. JOURNAL OF INFORMETRICS 10(1):200–211, February 2016. DOI BibTeX

    @article{ISI:000371938600018,
    	abstract = "We discuss, at the macro-level of nations, the contribution of research funding and rate of international collaboration to research performance, with important implications for the ``science of science policy{\{}''{\}}. In particular, we cross-correlate suitable measures of these quantities with a scientometric-based assessment of scientific success, studying both the average performance of nations and their temporal dynamics in the space defined by these variables during the last decade. We find significant differences among nations in terms of efficiency in turning (financial) input into bibliometrically measurable output, and we confirm that growth of international collaboration positively correlate with scientific success with significant benefits brought by EU integration policies. Various geo-cultural clusters of nations naturally emerge from our analysis. We critically discuss the factors that potentially determine the observed patterns. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).",
    	author = "Cimini, Giulio and Zaccaria, Andrea and Gabrielli, Andrea",
    	doi = "10.1016/j.joi.2016.01.002",
    	issn = "1751-1577",
    	journal = "JOURNAL OF INFORMETRICS",
    	month = "feb",
    	number = 1,
    	pages = "200--211",
    	title = "{Investigating the interplay between fundamentals of national research systems: Performance, investments and international collaborations}",
    	volume = 10,
    	year = 2016
    }
    
  17. Stanislao Gualdi, Giulio Cimini, Kevin Primicerio, Riccardo Di Clemente and Damien Challet. Statistically validated network of portfolio overlaps and systemic risk. Scientific Reports 6:39467, March 2016. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{Gualdi2016,
    	abstract = "Common asset holding by financial institutions, namely portfolio overlap, is nowadays regarded as an important channel for financial contagion with the potential to trigger fire sales and thus severe losses at the systemic level. In this paper we propose a method to assess the statistical significance of the overlap between pairs of heterogeneously diversified portfolios, which then allows us to build a validated network of financial institutions where links indicate potential contagion channels due to realized portfolio overlaps. The method is implemented on a historical database of institutional holdings ranging from 1999 to the end of 2013, but can be in general applied to any bipartite network where the presence of similar sets of neighbors is of interest. We find that the proportion of validated network links (i.e., of statistically significant overlaps) increased steadily before the 2007-2008 global financial crisis and reached a maximum when the crisis occurred. We argue that the nature of this measure implies that systemic risk from fire sales liquidation was maximal at that time. After a sharp drop in 2008, systemic risk resumed its growth in 2009, with a notable acceleration in 2013, reaching levels not seen since 2007. We finally show that market trends tend to be amplified in the portfolios identified by the algorithm, such that it is possible to have an informative signal about financial institutions that are about to suffer (enjoy) the most significant losses (gains).",
    	author = "Gualdi, Stanislao and Cimini, Giulio and Primicerio, Kevin and {Di Clemente}, Riccardo and Challet, Damien",
    	doi = "http://doi.org/10.1038/srep39467",
    	journal = "Scientific Reports",
    	month = "mar",
    	pages = 39467,
    	title = "{Statistically validated network of portfolio overlaps and systemic risk}",
    	url = "http://arxiv.org/abs/1603.05914",
    	volume = 6,
    	year = 2016
    }
    
  18. Giulio Cimini and Matteo Serri. Entangling credit and funding shocks in interbank markets. arXiv:1604.06629, 2016. BibTeX

    @article{cimini2016entangling,
    	author = "Cimini, Giulio and Serri, Matteo",
    	journal = "arXiv:1604.06629",
    	title = "{Entangling credit and funding shocks in interbank markets}",
    	year = 2016
    }
    
  19. Fabio Saracco, Riccardo Di Clemente, Andrea Gabrielli and Tiziano Squartini. Detecting early signs of the 2007–2008 crisis in the world trade. Scientific Reports 6:30286, July 2016. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{saracco2016detecting,
    	abstract = "Since 2007, several contributions have tried to identify early-warning signals of the financial crisis. However, the vast majority of analyses has focused on financial systems and little theoretical work has been done on the economic counterpart. In the present paper we fill this gap and employ the theoretical tools of network theory to shed light on the response of world trade to the financial crisis of 2007 and the economic recession of 2008-2009. We have explored the evolution of the bipartite World Trade Web (WTW) across the years 1995-2010, monitoring the behavior of the system both before and after 2007. Our analysis shows early structural changes in the WTW topology: since 2003, the WTW becomes increasingly compatible with the picture of a network where correlations between countries and products are progressively lost. Moreover, the WTW structural modification can be considered as concluded in 2010, after a seemingly stationary phase of three years. We have also refined our analysis by considering specific subsets of countries and products: the most statistically significant early-warning signals are provided by the most volatile macrosectors, especially when measured on developing countries, suggesting the emerging economies as being the most sensitive ones to the global economic cycles.",
    	archiveprefix = "arXiv",
    	arxivid = "1508.03533",
    	author = "Saracco, Fabio and {Di Clemente}, Riccardo and Gabrielli, Andrea and Squartini, Tiziano",
    	doi = "10.1038/srep30286",
    	eprint = "1508.03533",
    	issn = "2045-2322",
    	journal = "Scientific Reports",
    	month = "jul",
    	pages = 30286,
    	title = "{Detecting early signs of the 2007–2008 crisis in the world trade}",
    	url = "http://www.nature.com/articles/srep30286 http://arxiv.org/abs/1508.03533 http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep30286",
    	volume = 6,
    	year = 2016
    }
    
  20. Luca Valori, Giovanni Luca Giannuzzi, Angelo Facchini, Tiziano Squartini, Diego Garlaschelli and Riccardo Basosi. A generation-attraction model for renewable energy flows in Italy: A complex network approach. EUROPEAN PHYSICAL JOURNAL-SPECIAL TOPICS 225(10):1913–1927, October 2016. DOI BibTeX

    @article{ISI:000386269200004,
    	abstract = "In recent years, in Italy, the trend of the electricity demand and the need to connect a large number of renewable energy power generators to the power-grid, developed a novel type of energy transmission/distribution infrastructure. The Italian Transmission System Operator (TSO) and the Distribution System Operator (DSO), worked on a new infrastructural model, based on electronic meters and information technology. In pursuing this objective it is crucial importance to understand how even more larger shares of renewable energy can be fully integrated, providing a constant and reliable energy background over space and time. This is particularly true for intermittent sources as photovoltaic installations due to the fine-grained distribution of them across the Country. In this work we use an over-simplified model to characterize the Italian power grid as a graph whose nodes are Italian municipalities and the edges cross the administrative boundaries between a selected municipality and its first neighbours, following a Delaunay triangulation. Our aim is to describe the power flow as a diffusion process over a network, and using open data on the solar irradiation at the ground level, we estimate the production of photovoltaic energy in each node. An attraction index was also defined using demographic data, in accordance with average per capita energy consumption data. The available energy on each node was calculated by finding the stationary state of a generation-attraction model.",
    	author = "Valori, Luca and Giannuzzi, Giovanni Luca and Facchini, Angelo and Squartini, Tiziano and Garlaschelli, Diego and Basosi, Riccardo",
    	doi = "10.1140/epjst/e2016-60019-3",
    	issn = "1951-6355",
    	journal = "EUROPEAN PHYSICAL JOURNAL-SPECIAL TOPICS",
    	month = "oct",
    	number = 10,
    	pages = "1913--1927",
    	title = "{A generation-attraction model for renewable energy flows in Italy: A complex network approach}",
    	volume = 225,
    	year = 2016
    }
    
  21. Giampiero Bardella, Angelo Bifone, Andrea Gabrielli, Alessandro Gozzi and Tiziano Squartini. Hierarchical organization of functional connectivity in the mouse brain: a complex network approach. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS 6, August 2016. DOI BibTeX

    @article{ISI:000381606700001,
    	abstract = "This paper represents a contribution to the study of the brain functional connectivity from the perspective of complex networks theory. More specifically, we apply graph theoretical analyses to provide evidence of the modular structure of the mouse brain and to shed light on its hierarchical organization. We propose a novel percolation analysis and we apply our approach to the analysis of a resting-state functional MRI data set from 41 mice. This approach reveals a robust hierarchical structure of modules persistent across different subjects. Importantly, we test this approach against a statistical benchmark (or null model) which constrains only the distributions of empirical correlations. Our results unambiguously show that the hierarchical character of the mouse brain modular structure is not trivially encoded into this lower-order constraint. Finally, we investigate the modular structure of the mouse brain by computing the Minimal Spanning Forest, a technique that identifies subnetworks characterized by the strongest internal correlations. This approach represents a faster alternative to other community detection methods and provides a means to rank modules on the basis of the strength of their internal edges.",
    	author = "Bardella, Giampiero and Bifone, Angelo and Gabrielli, Andrea and Gozzi, Alessandro and Squartini, Tiziano",
    	doi = "10.1038/srep32060",
    	issn = "2045-2322",
    	journal = "SCIENTIFIC REPORTS",
    	month = "aug",
    	title = "{Hierarchical organization of functional connectivity in the mouse brain: a complex network approach}",
    	volume = 6,
    	year = 2016
    }
    
  22. Valerio Gemmetto, Tiziano Squartini, Francesco Picciolo, Franco Ruzzenenti and Diego Garlaschelli. Multiplexity and multireciprocity in directed multiplexes. Physical Review E 94(042316), 2016. URL BibTeX

    @article{gemmetto2014multiplexity,
    	abstract = "In the last few years, the study of multi-layer complex networks has received significant attention. In this work, we provide new measures to analyse dependencies between directed links in different layers of multiplex networks. We show that this requires more than a straightforward extension of the corresponding multiplexity measures that have been developed for undirected multiplexes. In particular, one should take into account the effects of reciprocity, i.e. the tendency of pairs of vertices to establish mutual connections. It is well known that reciprocity is a crucial property of many directed single-layer networks, affecting several dynamical processes taking place on such systems. Here we extend this quantity to directed multiplexes and introduce the notion of multireciprocity, defined as the tendency of links in one layer to be reciprocated by links in a different layer. We introduce multireciprocity measures valid for both binary and weighted networks and then validate these novel quantities on the World Trade Multiplex (WTM), representing the import-export bilateral relations between world countries in different commodities. We show that several pairs of layers exhibit strong multiplexity, an effect which can however be largely encoded into the degree or strength sequences of the various layers. Moreover, we find that most of the pairs of commodities are characterised by positive multireciprocities, even though such values are significantly lower than the usual reciprocity measured on the aggregated network. These results confirm that a multiplex approach to the phenomenon of reciprocity conveys much more information than the analysis of the aggregated network does.",
    	archiveprefix = "arXiv",
    	arxivid = "1411.1282",
    	author = "Gemmetto, Valerio and Squartini, Tiziano and Picciolo, Francesco and Ruzzenenti, Franco and Garlaschelli, Diego",
    	eprint = "1411.1282",
    	journal = "Physical Review E",
    	number = 042316,
    	title = "{Multiplexity and multireciprocity in directed multiplexes}",
    	url = "http://arxiv.org/abs/1411.1282",
    	volume = 94,
    	year = 2016
    }
    

  1. Marco Bardoscia, Stefano Battiston, Fabio Caccioli and Guido Caldarelli. DebtRank: A Microscopic Foundation for Shock Propagation (vol 10, e0130406, 2015). PLOS ONE 10(7), July 2015. DOI BibTeX

    @article{ISI:000358838400185,
    	author = "Bardoscia, Marco and Battiston, Stefano and Caccioli, Fabio and Caldarelli, Guido",
    	doi = "10.1371/journal.pone.0134888",
    	issn = "1932-6203",
    	journal = "PLOS ONE",
    	month = "jul",
    	number = 7,
    	title = "{DebtRank: A Microscopic Foundation for Shock Propagation (vol 10, e0130406, 2015)}",
    	volume = 10,
    	year = 2015
    }
    
  2. Juan Ignacio Perotti, Claudio Juan Tessone and Guido Caldarelli. Hierarchical mutual information for the comparison of hierarchical community structures in complex networks. Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics 92(6):1–13, 2015. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{Perotti2015,
    	abstract = "The quest for a quantitative characterization of community and modular structure of complex networks produced a variety of methods and algorithms to classify different networks. However, it is not clear if such methods provide consistent, robust and meaningful results when considering hierarchies as a whole. Part of the problem is the lack of a similarity measure for the comparison of hierarchical community structures. In this work we give a contribution by introducing the {\{}$\backslash$it hierarchical mutual information{\}}, which is a generalization of the traditional mutual information, and allows to compare hierarchical partitions and hierarchical community structures. The {\{}$\backslash$it normalized{\}} version of the hierarchical mutual information should behave analogously to the traditional normalized mutual information. Here, the correct behavior of the hierarchical mutual information is corroborated on an extensive battery of numerical experiments. The experiments are performed on artificial hierarchies, and on the hierarchical community structure of artificial and empirical networks. Furthermore, the experiments illustrate some of the practical applications of the hierarchical mutual information. Namely, the comparison of different community detection methods, and the study of the the consistency, robustness and temporal evolution of the hierarchical modular structure of networks.",
    	archiveprefix = "arXiv",
    	arxivid = "1508.04388",
    	author = "Perotti, Juan Ignacio and Tessone, Claudio Juan and Caldarelli, Guido",
    	doi = "10.1103/PhysRevE.92.062825",
    	eprint = "1508.04388",
    	isbn = "1539-3755",
    	issn = 15502376,
    	journal = "Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics",
    	keywords = "DOLFINS{\_}T2.1,DOLFINS{\_}WP2",
    	mendeley-tags = "DOLFINS{\_}T2.1,DOLFINS{\_}WP2",
    	number = 6,
    	pages = "1--13",
    	pmid = 26764762,
    	title = "{Hierarchical mutual information for the comparison of hierarchical community structures in complex networks}",
    	url = "http://journals.aps.org/pre/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevE.92.062825",
    	volume = 92,
    	year = 2015
    }
    
  3. Chiara Orsini, Marija M Dankulov, Pol Colomer-de-Simón, Almerima Jamakovic, Priya Mahadevan, Amin Vahdat, Kevin E Bassler, Zoltán Toroczkai, Marián Boguñá, Guido Caldarelli, Santo Fortunato and Dmitri Krioukov. Quantifying randomness in real networks. Nature Communications 6(May):8627, 2015. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{orsini2015quantifying,
    	abstract = "Represented as graphs, real networks are intricate combinations of order and disorder. Fixing some of the structural properties of network models to their values observed in real networks, many other properties appear as statistical consequences of these fixed observables, plus randomness in other respects. Here we employ the dk-series, a complete set of basic characteristics of the network structure, to study the statistical dependencies between different network properties. We consider six real networks—the Internet, US airport network, human protein interactions, technosocial web of trust, English word network, and an fMRI map of the human brain—and find that many important local and global structural properties of these networks are closely reproduced by dk-random graphs whose degree distributions, degree correlations and clustering are as in the corresponding real network. We discuss important conceptual, methodological, and practical implications of this evaluation of network randomness, and release software to generate dk-random graphs.",
    	archiveprefix = "arXiv",
    	arxivid = "1505.07503",
    	author = "Orsini, Chiara and Dankulov, Marija M. and Colomer-de-Sim{\'{o}}n, Pol and Jamakovic, Almerima and Mahadevan, Priya and Vahdat, Amin and Bassler, Kevin E. and Toroczkai, Zolt{\'{a}}n and Bogu{\~{n}}{\'{a}}, Mari{\'{a}}n and Caldarelli, Guido and Fortunato, Santo and Krioukov, Dmitri",
    	doi = "10.1038/ncomms9627",
    	eprint = "1505.07503",
    	file = ":Users/Gcalda/Google Drive (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)/Mendeley Desktop/Orsini et al/Nature Communications/Orsini et al. - 2015 - Quantifying randomness in real networks.pdf:pdf",
    	isbn = 0123145627,
    	issn = "2041-1723",
    	journal = "Nature Communications",
    	number = "May",
    	pages = 8627,
    	pmid = 26482121,
    	title = "{Quantifying randomness in real networks}",
    	url = "http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2015/151020/ncomms9627/full/ncomms9627.html",
    	volume = 6,
    	year = 2015
    }
    
  4. Fabiana Zollo, Petra Kralj Novak, Michela Del Vicario, Alessandro Bessi, Igor Mozetič, Antonio Scala, Guido Caldarelli and Walter Quattrociocchi. Emotional Dynamics in the Age of Misinformation. PLOS ONE 10(9):e0138740, September 2015. URL BibTeX

    @article{zollo2015emotional,
    	author = "Zollo, Fabiana and Novak, Petra Kralj and {Del Vicario}, Michela and Bessi, Alessandro and Mozeti{\v{c}}, Igor and Scala, Antonio and Caldarelli, Guido and Quattrociocchi, Walter",
    	editor = "Preis, Tobias",
    	file = "::",
    	issn = "1932-6203",
    	journal = "PLOS ONE",
    	month = "sep",
    	number = 9,
    	pages = "e0138740",
    	publisher = "Public Library of Science",
    	title = "{Emotional Dynamics in the Age of Misinformation}",
    	url = "http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371{\%}2Fjournal.pone.0138740",
    	volume = 10,
    	year = 2015
    }
    
  5. Michele Borassi, Alessandro Chessa and Guido Caldarelli. Hyperbolicity Measures “ Democracy ” in Real-World Networks. Physcal Review E 92:032812, 2015. BibTeX

    @article{Borassi2015,
    	author = "Borassi, Michele and Chessa, Alessandro and Caldarelli, Guido",
    	file = ":Users/Gcalda/Google Drive (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)/Mendeley Desktop/Borassi, Chessa, Caldarelli/Physcal Review E/Borassi, Chessa, Caldarelli - 2015 - Hyperbolicity Measures “ Democracy ” in Real-World Networks.pdf:pdf",
    	journal = "Physcal Review E",
    	pages = 032812,
    	title = "{Hyperbolicity Measures “ Democracy ” in Real-World Networks}",
    	volume = 92,
    	year = 2015
    }
    
  6. Gabriele Ranco, Darko Aleksovski, Guido Caldarelli, Miha Grčar and Igor Mozetič. The Effects of Twitter Sentiment on Stock Price Returns.. PloS one 10(9):e0138441, January 2015. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{Ranco2015,
    	abstract = {Social media are increasingly reflecting and influencing behavior of other complex systems. In this paper we investigate the relations between a well-known micro-blogging platform Twitter and financial markets. In particular, we consider, in a period of 15 months, the Twitter volume and sentiment about the 30 stock companies that form the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) index. We find a relatively low Pearson correlation and Granger causality between the corresponding time series over the entire time period. However, we find a significant dependence between the Twitter sentiment and abnormal returns during the peaks of Twitter volume. This is valid not only for the expected Twitter volume peaks (e.g., quarterly announcements), but also for peaks corresponding to less obvious events. We formalize the procedure by adapting the well-known "event study" from economics and finance to the analysis of Twitter data. The procedure allows to automatically identify events as Twitter volume peaks, to compute the prevailing sentiment (positive or negative) expressed in tweets at these peaks, and finally to apply the "event study" methodology to relate them to stock returns. We show that sentiment polarity of Twitter peaks implies the direction of cumulative abnormal returns. The amount of cumulative abnormal returns is relatively low (about 1-2{\%}), but the dependence is statistically significant for several days after the events.},
    	author = "Ranco, Gabriele and Aleksovski, Darko and Caldarelli, Guido and Gr{\v{c}}ar, Miha and Mozeti{\v{c}}, Igor",
    	doi = "10.1371/journal.pone.0138441",
    	issn = "1932-6203",
    	journal = "PloS one",
    	month = "jan",
    	number = 9,
    	pages = "e0138441",
    	pmid = 26390434,
    	publisher = "Public Library of Science",
    	title = "{The Effects of Twitter Sentiment on Stock Price Returns.}",
    	url = "http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0138441",
    	volume = 10,
    	year = 2015
    }
    
  7. Mario Mureddu, Guido Caldarelli, Alessandro Chessa, Antonio Scala and Alfonso Damiano. Green Power Grids: How Energy from Renewable Sources Affects Networks and Markets.. PloS one 10(9):e0135312, January 2015. URL BibTeX

    @article{mureddu2015green,
    	abstract = "The increasing attention to environmental issues is forcing the implementation of novel energy models based on renewable sources. This is fundamentally changing the configuration of energy management and is introducing new problems that are only partly understood. In particular, renewable energies introduce fluctuations which cause an increased request for conventional energy sources to balance energy requests at short notice. In order to develop an effective usage of low-carbon sources, such fluctuations must be understood and tamed. In this paper we present a microscopic model for the description and for the forecast of short time fluctuations related to renewable sources in order to estimate their effects on the electricity market. To account for the inter-dependencies in the energy market and the physical power dispatch network, we use a statistical mechanics approach to sample stochastic perturbations in the power system and an agent based approach for the prediction of the market players' behavior. Our model is data-driven; it builds on one-day-ahead real market transactions in order to train agents' behaviour and allows us to deduce the market share of different energy sources. We benchmarked our approach on the Italian market, finding a good accordance with real data.",
    	author = "Mureddu, Mario and Caldarelli, Guido and Chessa, Alessandro and Scala, Antonio and Damiano, Alfonso",
    	file = ":Users/Gcalda/Google Drive (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)/Mendeley Desktop/Mureddu et al/PloS one/Mureddu et al. - 2015 - Green Power Grids How Energy from Renewable Sources Affects Networks and Markets.pdf:pdf",
    	issn = "1932-6203",
    	journal = "PloS one",
    	month = "jan",
    	number = 9,
    	pages = "e0135312",
    	publisher = "Public Library of Science",
    	title = "{Green Power Grids: How Energy from Renewable Sources Affects Networks and Markets.}",
    	url = "http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0135312",
    	volume = 10,
    	year = 2015
    }
    
  8. Alessandro Bessi, Fabiana Zollo, Michela Del Vicario, Antonio Scala, Guido Caldarelli and Walter Quattrociocchi. Trend of Narratives in the Age of Misinformation. PloS one 10(8):e0134641, January 2015. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{Bessi2015a,
    	abstract = "Social media enabled a direct path from producer to consumer of contents changing the way users get informed, debate, and shape their worldviews. Such a disintermediation might weaken consensus on social relevant issues in favor of rumors, mistrust, or conspiracy thinking-e.g., chem-trails inducing global warming, the link between vaccines and autism, or the New World Order conspiracy. Previous studies pointed out that consumers of conspiracy-like content are likely to aggregate in homophile clusters-i.e., echo-chambers. Along this path we study, by means of a thorough quantitative analysis, how different topics are consumed inside the conspiracy echo-chamber in the Italian Facebook. Through a semi-automatic topic extraction strategy, we show that the most consumed contents semantically refer to four specific categories: environment, diet, health, and geopolitics. We find similar consumption patterns by comparing users activity (likes and comments) on posts belonging to these different semantic categories. Finally, we model users mobility across the distinct topics finding that the more a user is active, the more he is likely to span on all categories. Once inside a conspiracy narrative users tend to embrace the overall corpus.",
    	author = "Bessi, Alessandro and Zollo, Fabiana and {Del Vicario}, Michela and Scala, Antonio and Caldarelli, Guido and Quattrociocchi, Walter",
    	doi = "10.1371/journal.pone.0134641",
    	issn = "1932-6203",
    	journal = "PloS one",
    	month = "jan",
    	number = 8,
    	pages = "e0134641",
    	pmid = 26275043,
    	publisher = "Public Library of Science",
    	title = "{Trend of Narratives in the Age of Misinformation}",
    	url = "http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0134641",
    	volume = 10,
    	year = 2015
    }
    
  9. Young-Ho Eom, Michelangelo Puliga, Jasmina Smailovic, Igor Mozetic and Guido Caldarelli. Twitter-Based Analysis of the Dynamics of Collective Attention to Political Parties.. PloS one 10(7):e0131184, January 2015. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{Eom2015,
    	abstract = "Large-scale data from social media have a significant potential to describe complex phenomena in the real world and to anticipate collective behaviors such as information spreading and social trends. One specific case of study is represented by the collective attention to the action of political parties. Not surprisingly, researchers and stakeholders tried to correlate parties' presence on social media with their performances in elections. Despite the many efforts, results are still inconclusive since this kind of data is often very noisy and significant signals could be covered by (largely unknown) statistical fluctuations. In this paper we consider the number of tweets (tweet volume) of a party as a proxy of collective attention to the party, identify the dynamics of the volume, and show that this quantity has some information on the election outcome. We find that the distribution of the tweet volume for each party follows a log-normal distribution with a positive autocorrelation of the volume over short terms, which indicates the volume has large fluctuations of the log-normal distribution yet with a short-term tendency. Furthermore, by measuring the ratio of two consecutive daily tweet volumes, we find that the evolution of the daily volume of a party can be described by means of a geometric Brownian motion (i.e., the logarithm of the volume moves randomly with a trend). Finally, we determine the optimal period of averaging tweet volume for reducing fluctuations and extracting short-term tendencies. We conclude that the tweet volume is a good indicator of parties' success in the elections when considered over an optimal time window. Our study identifies the statistical nature of collective attention to political issues and sheds light on how to model the dynamics of collective attention in social media.",
    	author = "Eom, Young-Ho and Puliga, Michelangelo and Smailovic, Jasmina and Mozetic, Igor and Caldarelli, Guido",
    	doi = "10.1371/journal.pone.0131184",
    	file = "::",
    	issn = "1932-6203",
    	journal = "PloS one",
    	month = "jan",
    	number = 7,
    	pages = "e0131184",
    	pmid = 26161795,
    	publisher = "Public Library of Science",
    	title = "{Twitter-Based Analysis of the Dynamics of Collective Attention to Political Parties.}",
    	url = "http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371{\%}2Fjournal.pone.0131184",
    	volume = 10,
    	year = 2015
    }
    
  10. Marco Bardoscia, Stefano Battiston, Fabio Caccioli and Guido Caldarelli. DebtRank: A microscopic foundation for shock propagation. PLoS ONE 10(6):e0134888, January 2015. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{bardoscia2015debtrank,
    	abstract = {The DebtRank algorithm has been increasingly investigated as a method to estimate the impact of shocks in financial networks, as it overcomes the limitations of the traditional default-cascade approaches. Here we formulate a dynamical "microscopic" theory of instability for financial networks by iterating balance sheet identities of individual banks and by assuming a simple rule for the transfer of shocks from borrowers to lenders. By doing so, we generalise the DebtRank formulation, both providing an interpretation of the effective dynamics in terms of basic accounting principles and preventing the underestimation of losses on certain network topologies. Depending on the structure of the interbank leverage matrix the dynamics is either stable, in which case the asymptotic state can be computed analytically, or unstable, meaning that at least one bank will default. We apply this framework to a dataset of the top listed European banks in the period 2008-2013. We find that network effects can generate an amplification of exogenous shocks of a factor ranging between three (in normal periods) and six (during the crisis) when we stress the system with a 0.5{\%} shock on external (i.e. non-interbank) assets for all banks.},
    	archiveprefix = "arXiv",
    	arxivid = "1504.01857",
    	author = "Bardoscia, Marco and Battiston, Stefano and Caccioli, Fabio and Caldarelli, Guido",
    	doi = "10.1371/journal.pone.0130406",
    	eprint = "1504.01857",
    	issn = 19326203,
    	journal = "PLoS ONE",
    	keywords = "battiston{\_}journals",
    	mendeley-tags = "battiston{\_}journals",
    	month = "jan",
    	number = 6,
    	pages = "e0134888",
    	pmid = 26091013,
    	publisher = "Public Library of Science",
    	title = "{DebtRank: A microscopic foundation for shock propagation}",
    	url = "http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0130406",
    	volume = 10,
    	year = 2015
    }
    
  11. Alessandro Bessi, Mauro Coletto, George Alexandru Davidescu, Antonio Scala, Guido Caldarelli and Walter Quattrociocchi. Science vs Conspiracy: Collective Narratives in the Age of Misinformation. Plos One 10(2):e0118093, 2015. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{bessi2015science,
    	abstract = "The large availability of user provided contents on online social media facilitates people aggregation around shared beliefs, interests, worldviews and narratives. In spite of the enthusiastic rhetoric about the so called collective intelligence unsubstantiated rumors and conspiracy theories – e.g., chemtrails, reptilians or the Illuminati – are pervasive in online social networks (OSN). In this work we study, on a sample of 1.2 million of individuals, how information related to very distinct narratives – i.e. main stream scientific and conspiracy news – are consumed and shape communities on Facebook. Our results show that polarized communities emerge around distinct types of contents and usual consumers of conspiracy news result to be more focused and self-contained on their specific contents. To test potential biases induced by the continued exposure to unsubstantiated rumors on users' content selection, we conclude our analysis measuring how users respond to 4,709 troll information – i.e. parodistic and sarcastic imitation of conspiracy theories. We find that 77.92{\%} of likes and 80.86{\%} of comments are from users usually interacting with conspiracy stories.",
    	author = "Bessi, Alessandro and Coletto, Mauro and Davidescu, George Alexandru and Scala, Antonio and Caldarelli, Guido and Quattrociocchi, Walter",
    	doi = "10.1371/journal.pone.0118093",
    	file = ":Users/Gcalda/Google Drive (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)/Mendeley Desktop/Bessi et al/PLoS ONE/Bessi et al. - 2015 - Science vs Conspiracy Collective Narratives in the Age of Misinformation.pdf:pdf",
    	issn = "1932-6203",
    	journal = "Plos One",
    	number = 2,
    	pages = "e0118093",
    	title = "{Science vs Conspiracy: Collective Narratives in the Age of Misinformation}",
    	url = "http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118093",
    	volume = 10,
    	year = 2015
    }
    
  12. Alessandro Bessi, Fabio Petroni, Michela Del Vicario, Fabiana Zollo, Aris Anagnostopoulos, Antonio Scala, Guido Caldarelli and Walter Quattrociocchi. Viral Misinformation: The Role of Homophily and Polarization. In Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on World Wide Web - WWW '15 Companion. 2015, 355–356. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @inproceedings{Bessi2015d,
    	address = "New York, New York, USA",
    	annote = "https://simpolproject.eu/download/simpol-initiative-research/anagnostopoulos2014viral.pdf",
    	author = "Bessi, Alessandro and Petroni, Fabio and {Del Vicario}, Michela and Zollo, Fabiana and Anagnostopoulos, Aris and Scala, Antonio and Caldarelli, Guido and Quattrociocchi, Walter",
    	booktitle = "Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on World Wide Web - WWW '15 Companion",
    	doi = "10.1145/2740908.2745939",
    	isbn = 9781450334730,
    	keywords = "big data,misinformation,rumor spreading,social networks,virality",
    	pages = "355--356",
    	publisher = "ACM Press",
    	title = "{Viral Misinformation: The Role of Homophily and Polarization}",
    	url = "http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=2740908.2745939",
    	year = 2015
    }
    
  13. Giulio Cimini, Tiziano Squartini, Nicolò Musmeci, Michelangelo Puliga, Andrea Gabrielli, Diego Garlaschelli, Stefano Battiston and Guido Caldarelli. Reconstructing Topological Properties of Complex Networks Using the Fitness Model. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8852:323–333, 2015. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{cimini2015reconstructing,
    	abstract = "A major problem in the study of complex socioeconomic systems is represented by privacy issues—that can put severe limitations on the amount of accessible information, forcing to build models on the basis of incomplete knowledge. In this paper we investigate a novel method to reconstruct global topological properties of a complex network starting from limited information. This method uses the knowledge of an intrinsic property of the nodes (indicated as fitness), and the number of connections of only a limited subset of nodes, in order to generate an ensemble of exponential random graphs that are representative of the real systems and that can be used to estimate its topological properties. Here we focus in particular on reconstructing the most basic properties that are commonly used to describe a network: density of links, assortativity, clusterin",
    	author = "Cimini, Giulio and Squartini, Tiziano and Musmeci, Nicol{\`{o}} and Puliga, Michelangelo and Gabrielli, Andrea and Garlaschelli, Diego and Battiston, Stefano and Caldarelli, Guido",
    	doi = "10.1007/978-3-319-15168-7_41",
    	file = ":Users/Gcalda/Google Drive (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)/Mendeley Desktop/Cimini et al/Lecture Notes in Computer Science/Cimini et al. - 2015 - Reconstructing Topological Properties of Complex Networks Using the Fitness Model.pdf:pdf",
    	journal = "Lecture Notes in Computer Science",
    	pages = "323--333",
    	title = "{Reconstructing Topological Properties of Complex Networks Using the Fitness Model}",
    	url = "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-15168-7{\_}41",
    	volume = 8852,
    	year = 2015
    }
    
  14. Maddalena Dilucca, Giulio Cimini, Andrea Semmoloni, Antonio Deiana and Andrea Giansanti. Codon Bias Patterns of E. coli's Interacting Proteins. PLOS ONE 10(11), November 2015. DOI BibTeX

    @article{ISI:000367628500008,
    	abstract = "Synonymous codons, i.e., DNA nucleotide triplets coding for the same amino acid, are used differently across the variety of living organisms. The biological meaning of this phenomenon, known as codon usage bias, is still controversial. In order to shed light on this point, we propose a new codon bias index, CompAI, that is based on the competition between cognate and near-cognate tRNAs during translation, without being tuned to the usage bias of highly expressed genes. We perform a genome-wide evaluation of codon bias for E. coli, comparing CompAI with other widely used indices: tAI, CAI, and Nc. We show that CompAI and tAI capture similar information by being positively correlated with gene conservation, measured by the Evolutionary Retention Index (ERI), and essentiality, whereas, CAI and Nc appear to be less sensitive to evolutionary-functional parameters. Notably, the rate of variation of tAI and CompAI with ERI allows to obtain sets of genes that consistently belong to specific clusters of orthologous genes (COGs). We also investigate the correlation of codon bias at the genomic level with the network features of protein-protein interactions in E. coli. We find that the most densely connected communities of the network share a similar level of codon bias (as measured by CompAI and tAI). Conversely, a small difference in codon bias between two genes is, statistically, a prerequisite for the corresponding proteins to interact. Importantly, among all codon bias indices, CompAI turns out to have the most coherent distribution over the communities of the interactome, pointing to the significance of competition among cognate and near-cognate tRNAs for explaining codon usage adaptation. Notably, CompAI may potentially correlate with translation speed measurements, by accounting for the specific delay induced by wobble-pairing between codons and anticodons.",
    	author = "Dilucca, Maddalena and Cimini, Giulio and Semmoloni, Andrea and Deiana, Antonio and Giansanti, Andrea",
    	doi = "10.1371/journal.pone.0142127",
    	issn = "1932-6203",
    	journal = "PLOS ONE",
    	month = "nov",
    	number = 11,
    	title = "{Codon Bias Patterns of E. coli's Interacting Proteins}",
    	volume = 10,
    	year = 2015
    }
    
  15. Giulio Cimini and Angel Sanchez. How Evolutionary Dynamics Affects Network Reciprocity in Prisoner's Dilemma. JASSS-THE JOURNAL OF ARTIFICIAL SOCIETIES AND SOCIAL SIMULATION 18(2), March 2015. DOI BibTeX

    @article{ISI:000354373800025,
    	abstract = "Cooperation lies at the foundations of human societies, yet why people cooperate remains a conundrum. The issue, known as network reciprocity, of whether population structure can foster cooperative behavior in social dilemmas has been addressed by many, but theoretical studies have yielded contradictory results so far-as the problem is very sensitive to how players adapt their strategy. However, recent experiments with the prisoner's dilemma game played on different networks and in a specific range of payoffs suggest that humans, at least for those experimental setups, do not consider neighbors' payoffs when making their decisions, and that the network structure does not influence the final outcome. In this work we carry out an extensive analysis of different evolutionary dynamics, taking into account most of the alternatives that have been proposed so far to implement players' strategy updating process. In this manner we show that the absence of network reciprocity is a general feature of the dynamics (among those we consider) that do not take neighbors' payoffs into account. Our results, together with experimental evidence, hint at how to properly model real people's behavior.",
    	author = "Cimini, Giulio and Sanchez, Angel",
    	doi = "10.18564/jasss.2726",
    	issn = "1460-7425",
    	journal = "JASSS-THE JOURNAL OF ARTIFICIAL SOCIETIES AND SOCIAL SIMULATION",
    	month = "mar",
    	number = 2,
    	title = "{How Evolutionary Dynamics Affects Network Reciprocity in Prisoner's Dilemma}",
    	volume = 18,
    	year = 2015
    }
    
  16. Giulio Cimini, Claudio Castellano and Angel Sanchez. Dynamics to Equilibrium in Network Games: Individual Behavior and Global Response. PLOS ONE 10(3), March 2015. DOI BibTeX

    @article{ISI:000353889600070,
    	abstract = "Various social contexts can be depicted as games of strategic interactions on networks, where an individual's welfare depends on both her and her partners' actions. Whereas much attention has been devoted to Bayes-Nash equilibria in such games, here we look at strategic interactions from an evolutionary perspective. To this end, we present the results of a numerical simulations program for these games, which allows us to find out whether Nash equilibria are accessible by adaptation of player strategies, and in general to identify the attractors of the evolution. Simulations allow us to go beyond a global characterization of the cooperativeness at equilibrium and probe into individual behavior. We find that when players imitate each other, evolution does not reach Nash equilibria and, worse, leads to very unfavorable states in terms of welfare. On the contrary, when players update their behavior rationally, they self-organize into a rich variety of Nash equilibria, where individual behavior and payoffs are shaped by the nature of the game, the social network's structure and the players' position within the network. Our results allow to assess the validity of mean-field approaches we use to describe the dynamics of these games. Interestingly, our dynamically-found equilibria generally do not coincide with (but show qualitatively the same features of) those resulting from theoretical predictions in the context of one-shot games under incomplete information.",
    	author = "Cimini, Giulio and Castellano, Claudio and Sanchez, Angel",
    	doi = "10.1371/journal.pone.0120343",
    	issn = "1932-6203",
    	journal = "PLOS ONE",
    	month = "mar",
    	number = 3,
    	title = "{Dynamics to Equilibrium in Network Games: Individual Behavior and Global Response}",
    	volume = 10,
    	year = 2015
    }
    
  17. Giulio Cimini, Tiziano Squartini, Diego Garlaschelli and Andrea Gabrielli. Systemic Risk Analysis on Reconstructed Economic and Financial Networks.. Scientific reports 5:15758, January 2015. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{cimini2015systemic,
    	abstract = "We address a fundamental problem that is systematically encountered when modeling real-world complex systems of societal relevance: the limitedness of the information available. In the case of economic and financial networks, privacy issues severely limit the information that can be accessed and, as a consequence, the possibility of correctly estimating the resilience of these systems to events such as financial shocks, crises and cascade failures. Here we present an innovative method to reconstruct the structure of such partially-accessible systems, based on the knowledge of intrinsic node-specific properties and of the number of connections of only a limited subset of nodes. This information is used to calibrate an inference procedure based on fundamental concepts derived from statistical physics, which allows to generate ensembles of directed weighted networks intended to represent the real system-so that the real network properties can be estimated as their average values within the ensemble. We test the method both on synthetic and empirical networks, focusing on the properties that are commonly used to measure systemic risk. Indeed, the method shows a remarkable robustness with respect to the limitedness of the information available, thus representing a valuable tool for gaining insights on privacy-protected economic and financial systems.",
    	author = "Cimini, Giulio and Squartini, Tiziano and Garlaschelli, Diego and Gabrielli, Andrea",
    	doi = "10.1038/srep15758",
    	file = ":Users/Gcalda/Google Drive (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)/Mendeley Desktop/Cimini et al/Scientific reports/Cimini et al. - 2015 - Systemic Risk Analysis on Reconstructed Economic and Financial Networks.pdf:pdf",
    	issn = "2045-2322",
    	journal = "Scientific reports",
    	language = "en",
    	month = "jan",
    	pages = 15758,
    	pmid = 26507849,
    	publisher = "Nature Publishing Group",
    	title = "{Systemic Risk Analysis on Reconstructed Economic and Financial Networks.}",
    	url = "http://www.nature.com/srep/2015/151028/srep15758/full/srep15758.html",
    	volume = 5,
    	year = 2015
    }
    
  18. Giulio Cimini, Tiziano Squartini, Andrea Gabrielli and Diego Garlaschelli. Estimating topological properties of weighted networks from limited information. Physical Review E 92(4):040802, October 2015. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{cimini2015estimating,
    	author = "Cimini, Giulio and Squartini, Tiziano and Gabrielli, Andrea and Garlaschelli, Diego",
    	doi = "10.1103/PhysRevE.92.040802",
    	file = ":Users/Gcalda/Google Drive (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)/Mendeley Desktop/Cimini et al/Physical Review E/Cimini et al. - 2015 - Estimating topological properties of weighted networks from limited information.pdf:pdf",
    	issn = "1539-3755",
    	journal = "Physical Review E",
    	month = "oct",
    	number = 4,
    	pages = 040802,
    	title = "{Estimating topological properties of weighted networks from limited information}",
    	url = "http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevE.92.040802",
    	volume = 92,
    	year = 2015
    }
    
  19. F Saracco, R Di Clemente, A Gabrielli and L Pietronero. From innovation to diversification: A simple competitive model. PLoS ONE 10(11), 2015. DOI BibTeX

    @article{Saracco2015,
    	abstract = "{\textcopyright} 2015 Saracco et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.Few attempts have been proposed in order to describe the statistical features and historical evolution of the export bipartite matrix countries/products. An important standpoint is the introduction of a products network, namely a hierarchical forest of products that models the formation and the evolution of commodities. In the present article, we propose a simple dynamical model where countries compete with each other to acquire the ability to produce and export new products. Countries will have two possibilities to expand their export: innovating, i.e. introducing new goods, namely new nodes in the product networks, or copying the productive process of others, i.e. occupying a node already present in the same network. In this way, the topology of the products network and the country-product matrix evolve simultaneously, driven by the countries push toward innovation.",
    	author = "Saracco, F. and {Di Clemente}, R. and Gabrielli, A. and Pietronero, L.",
    	doi = "10.1371/journal.pone.0140420",
    	issn = 19326203,
    	journal = "PLoS ONE",
    	number = 11,
    	title = "{From innovation to diversification: A simple competitive model}",
    	volume = 10,
    	year = 2015
    }
    
  20. Fabio Saracco, Riccardo Di Clemente, Andrea Gabrielli and Tiziano Squartini. Randomizing bipartite networks: the case of the World Trade Web. Scientific Reports 5:10595, June 2015. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{saracco2015randomizing,
    	abstract = "Within the last fifteen years, network theory has been successfully applied both to natural sciences and to socioeconomic disciplines. In particular, bipartite networks have been recognized to provide a particularly insightful representation of many systems, ranging from mutualistic networks in ecology to trade networks in economy, whence the need of a pattern detection-oriented analysis in order to identify statistically-significant structural properties. Such an analysis rests upon the definition of suitable null models, i.e. upon the choice of the portion of network structure to be preserved while randomizing everything else. However, quite surprisingly, little work has been done so far to define null models for real bipartite networks. The aim of the present work is to fill this gap, extending a recently-proposed method to randomize monopartite networks to bipartite networks. While the proposed formalism is perfectly general, we apply our method to the binary, undirected, bipartite representation of the World Trade Web, comparing the observed values of a number of structural quantities of interest with the expected ones, calculated via our randomization procedure. Interestingly, the behavior of the World Trade Web in this new representation is strongly different from the monopartite analogue, showing highly non-trivial patterns of self-organization.",
    	author = "Saracco, Fabio and {Di Clemente}, Riccardo and Gabrielli, Andrea and Squartini, Tiziano",
    	doi = "10.1038/srep10595",
    	issn = "2045-2322",
    	journal = "Scientific Reports",
    	month = "jun",
    	pages = 10595,
    	pmid = 26029820,
    	title = "{Randomizing bipartite networks: the case of the World Trade Web}",
    	url = "http://arxiv.org/abs/1503.05098{\%}5Cnhttp://www.nature.com/articles/srep10595 http://www.nature.com/articles/srep10595",
    	volume = 5,
    	year = 2015
    }
    
  21. Marco Alberto Javarone and Tiziano Squartini. Conformism-driven phases of opinion formation on heterogeneous networks: the q-voter model case. JOURNAL OF STATISTICAL MECHANICS-THEORY AND EXPERIMENT, October 2015. DOI BibTeX

    @article{ISI:000366633600003,
    	abstract = "The q-voter model, a variant of the classic voter model, has been analyzed by several authors. While allowing us to study opinion dynamics, this model is also believed to be one of the most representative among the many defined in the wide field of sociophysics. Here, we investigate the consequences of conformity on the consensus reaching process, by numerically simulating a q-voter model with agents behaving either as conformists or nonconformists, embedded on heterogeneous network topologies (as small-world and scale-free). In fact, although it is already known that conformity enhances the reaching of consensus, the related process is often studied only on fully-connected networks, thus strongly limiting our full understanding of it. This paper represents a first step in the direction of analyzing more realistic social models, showing that different opinion formation phases, driven by the conformist agents density, are observable. As a result, we identify threshold values of the density of conformist agents, varying across different topologies and separating different regimes of our system, ranging from a disordered phase, where different opinions coexist, to a gradually more ordered phase, where consensus is eventually reached.",
    	author = "Javarone, Marco Alberto and Squartini, Tiziano",
    	doi = "10.1088/1742-5468/2015/10/P10002",
    	issn = "1742-5468",
    	journal = "JOURNAL OF STATISTICAL MECHANICS-THEORY AND EXPERIMENT",
    	month = "oct",
    	title = "{Conformism-driven phases of opinion formation on heterogeneous networks: the q-voter model case}",
    	year = 2015
    }
    
  22. Serge Galam, Marco Alberto Javarone and Tiziano Squartini. SEDNAM - Socio-Economic Dynamics: Networks and Agent-Based Models - Introduction. In LM Aiello and D McFarland (eds.). Social Informatics 8852. 2015, 321–322. DOI BibTeX

    @inproceedings{ISI:000380559900040,
    	annote = "SocInfo International Workshops, Barcelona, SPAIN, NOV 10, 2014",
    	author = "Galam, Serge and Javarone, Marco Alberto and Squartini, Tiziano",
    	booktitle = "Social Informatics",
    	doi = "10.1007/978-3-319-15168-7_40",
    	editor = "{Aiello, LM and McFarland, D}",
    	isbn = "978-3-319-15168-7; 978-3-319-15167-0",
    	issn = "0302-9743",
    	organization = "Microsoft Res; Facebook; Yahoo Labs; Stanford, Ctr Computat Social Sci; Barcelona Media; SocialSensor; IEEE Special Techn Community Social Networking; STC Social Networking",
    	pages = "321--322",
    	series = "Lecture Notes in Computer Science",
    	title = "{SEDNAM - Socio-Economic Dynamics: Networks and Agent-Based Models - Introduction}",
    	volume = 8852,
    	year = 2015
    }
    
  23. Tiziano Squartini, Joey De Mol, Frank Den Hollander and Diego Garlaschelli. Breaking of Ensemble Equivalence in Networks. Physical Review Letters 115(26):1–5, 2015. DOI BibTeX

    @article{Squartini2015,
    	abstract = "It is generally believed that, in the thermodynamic limit, the microcanonical description as a function of energy coincides with the canonical description as a function of temperature. However, various examples of systems for which the microcanonical and canonical ensembles are not equivalent have been identified. A complete theory of this intriguing phenomenon is still missing. Here we show that ensemble nonequivalence can manifest itself also in random graphs with topological constraints. We find that, while graphs with a given number of links are ensemble-equivalent, graphs with a given degree sequence are not. This result holds irrespective of whether the energy is nonadditive (as in unipartite graphs) or additive (as in bipartite graphs). In contrast with previous expectations, our results show that: (1) physically, nonequivalence can be induced by an extensive number of local constraints, and not necessarily by long-range interactions or nonadditivity; (2) mathematically, nonquivalence is determined by a different large-deviation behaviour of microcanonical and canonical probabilities for a single microstate, and not necessarily for almost all microstates. The latter criterion, which is entirely local, is not restricted to networks and holds in general.",
    	archiveprefix = "arXiv",
    	arxivid = "1501.00388",
    	author = "Squartini, Tiziano and {De Mol}, Joey and {Den Hollander}, Frank and Garlaschelli, Diego",
    	doi = "10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.268701",
    	eprint = "1501.00388",
    	file = ":Users/Gcalda/Google Drive (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)/Mendeley Desktop/Squartini et al/Physical Review Letters/Squartini et al. - 2015 - Breaking of Ensemble Equivalence in Networks.pdf:pdf",
    	issn = 10797114,
    	journal = "Physical Review Letters",
    	number = 26,
    	pages = "1--5",
    	pmid = 26765034,
    	title = "{Breaking of Ensemble Equivalence in Networks}",
    	volume = 115,
    	year = 2015
    }
    
  24. Tiziano Squartini, Enrico Ser-Giacomi, Diego Garlaschelli and George Judge. Information Recovery in Behavioral Networks. Plos One 10(5):e0125077, 2015. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{squartini2015information,
    	author = "Squartini, Tiziano and Ser-Giacomi, Enrico and Garlaschelli, Diego and Judge, George",
    	doi = "10.1371/journal.pone.0125077",
    	issn = "1932-6203",
    	journal = "Plos One",
    	number = 5,
    	pages = "e0125077",
    	title = "{Information Recovery in Behavioral Networks}",
    	url = "http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125077",
    	volume = 10,
    	year = 2015
    }
    
  25. Tiziano Squartini, Rossana Mastrandrea and Diego Garlaschelli. Unbiased sampling of network ensembles. New J Phys 17(2):23052, 2015. DOI BibTeX

    @article{squartini2015unbiased,
    	abstract = "Sampling random graphs with given properties is a key step in the analysis of networks, as random ensembles represent basic null models required to identify patterns such as communities and motifs. A key requirement is that the sampling process is unbiased and efficient. The main approaches are microcanonical, i.e. they sample graphs that exactly match the enforced constraints. Unfortunately, when applied to strongly heterogeneous networks (including most real-world graphs), the majority of these approaches become biased and/or time-consuming. Moreover, the algorithms defined in the simplest cases (such as binary graphs with given degrees) are not easily generalizable to more complicated ensembles. Here we propose a solution to the problem via the introduction of a `maximize-and-sample' (`Max {\&} Sam') method to correctly sample ensembles of networks where the constraints are `soft' i.e. they are realized as ensemble averages. Being based on exact maximum-entropy distributions, our approach is unbiased by construction, even for strongly heterogeneous networks. It is also more computationally efficient than most microcanonical alternatives. Finally, it works for both binary and weighted networks with a variety of constraints, including combined degree-strengths sequences and full reciprocity structure, for which no alternative method exists. Our method can also be turned into a microcanonical one, via a restriction to the relevant subset. We show various applications to real-world networks and provide a code implementing all our algorithms.",
    	author = "Squartini, Tiziano and Mastrandrea, Rossana and Garlaschelli, Diego",
    	doi = "10.1088/1367-2630/17/2/023052",
    	journal = "New J Phys",
    	keywords = "02.10.Ox,02.70.Rr,05.10.-a,89.75.Hc,complex networks,ensemble nonequivalence,maximum entropy principle,null models of graphs,sampling network ensembles",
    	number = 2,
    	pages = 23052,
    	publisher = "IOP Publishing",
    	title = "{Unbiased sampling of network ensembles}",
    	volume = 17,
    	year = 2015
    }
    
  26. Assaf Almog, Tiziano Squartini and Diego Garlaschelli. A GDP-driven model for the binary and weighted structure of the International Trade Network. New Journal of Physics 17(1):013009, January 2015. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{almog2015gdp,
    	author = "Almog, Assaf and Squartini, Tiziano and Garlaschelli, Diego",
    	doi = "10.1088/1367-2630/17/1/013009",
    	file = ":Users/Gcalda/Dropbox (IMT Alti Studi Lucca)/Mendeley Desktop/Almog, Squartini, Garlaschelli/New Journal of Physics/Almog, Squartini, Garlaschelli - 2015 - A GDP-driven model for the binary and weighted structure of the International Trade Network.pdf:pdf",
    	isbn = "doi:10.1088/1367-2630/17/1/013009",
    	issn = "1367-2630",
    	journal = "New Journal of Physics",
    	language = "en",
    	month = "jan",
    	number = 1,
    	pages = 013009,
    	publisher = "IOP Publishing",
    	title = "{A GDP-driven model for the binary and weighted structure of the International Trade Network}",
    	url = "http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1367-2630/17/1/013009",
    	volume = 17,
    	year = 2015
    }
    
  27. Rossana Mastrandrea, Julie Fournet and Alain Barrat. Contact patterns in a high school: A comparison between data collected using wearable sensors, contact diaries and friendship surveys. PLoS ONE 10(9):1–26, 2015. DOI BibTeX

    @article{mastrandrea2015contact,
    	abstract = "Given their importance in shaping social networks and determining how information or transmissible diseases propagate in a population, interactions between individuals are the subject of many data collection efforts. To this aim, different methods are commonly used, ranging from diaries and surveys to decentralised infrastructures based on wearable sensors. These methods have each advantages and limitations but are rarely compared in a given setting. Moreover, as surveys targeting friendship relations might suffer less from memory biases than contact diaries, it is interesting to explore how actual contact patterns occurring in day-to-day life compare with friendship relations and with online social links. Here we make progresses in these directions by leveraging data collected in a French high school and concerning (i) face-to-face contacts measured by two concurrent methods, namely wearable sensors and contact diaries, (ii) self-reported friendship surveys, and (iii) online social links. We compare the resulting data sets and find that most short contacts are not reported in diaries while long contacts have a large reporting probability, and that the durations of contacts tend to be overestimated in the diaries. Moreover, measured contacts corresponding to reported friendship can have durations of any length but all long contacts do correspond to a reported friendship. On the contrary, online links that are not also reported in the friendship survey correspond to short face-to-face contacts, highlighting the difference of nature between reported friendships and online links. Diaries and surveys suffer moreover from a low sampling rate, as many students did not fill them, showing that the sensor-based platform had a higher acceptability. We also show that, despite the biases of diaries and surveys, the overall structure of the contact network, as quantified by the mixing patterns between classes, is correctly captured by both networks of self-reported contacts and of friendships, and we investigate the correlations between the number of neighbors of individuals in the three networks. Overall, diaries and surveys tend to yield a correct picture of the global structural organization of the contact network, albeit with much less links, and give access to a sort of backbone of the contact network corresponding to the strongest links, i.e., the contacts of longest cumulative durations.",
    	archiveprefix = "arXiv",
    	arxivid = "1506.03645",
    	author = "Mastrandrea, Rossana and Fournet, Julie and Barrat, Alain",
    	doi = "10.1371/journal.pone.0136497",
    	eprint = "1506.03645",
    	file = ":Users/Gcalda/Google Drive (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)/Mendeley Desktop/Mastrandrea, Fournet, Barrat/PLoS ONE/Mastrandrea, Fournet, Barrat - 2015 - Contact patterns in a high school A comparison between data collected using wearable sensors, cont.pdf:pdf",
    	isbn = "1932-6203 (Electronic)$\backslash$r1932-6203 (Linking)",
    	issn = 19326203,
    	journal = "PLoS ONE",
    	number = 9,
    	pages = "1--26",
    	pmid = 26325289,
    	title = "{Contact patterns in a high school: A comparison between data collected using wearable sensors, contact diaries and friendship surveys}",
    	volume = 10,
    	year = 2015
    }
    

  1. A Chessa, G Caldarelli, A Damiano and A Scala. {Integrating the electric grid and the commuter network through a “Vehicle to Grid{”} concept: a Complex Networks Theory approach}. In 2014 IEEE INTERNATIONAL ELECTRIC VEHICLE CONFERENCE (IEVC). 2014. BibTeX

    @inproceedings{ISI:000380394300045,
    	abstract = "The new opportunities in the energy production, storage and distribution, raise new systemic challenges in the coordination and integration of each element in the infrastructural networks, considering also the unavoidable environmental constraints. In this `multi-network' scenario an exciting prospective is to develop the so-called vehicle-to-grid concept to introduce a positive coupling between the electric grid and the commuter network. The present research will use concepts and tools borrowed from the scientific field of Complex Networks, to understand the infrastructures' interplay in the perspective of modeling, simulating and possibly controlling the systemic risk.",
    	annote = "2014 IEEE International Electric Vehicle Conference (IEVC), Florence, ITALY, DEC 17-19, 2014",
    	author = "Chessa, A and Caldarelli, G and Damiano, A and Scala, A",
    	booktitle = "2014 IEEE INTERNATIONAL ELECTRIC VEHICLE CONFERENCE (IEVC)",
    	isbn = "978-1-4799-6075-0",
    	title = "{Integrating the electric grid and the commuter network through a ``Vehicle to Grid{\{}''{\}} concept: a Complex Networks Theory approach}",
    	year = 2014
    }
    
  2. A Scala, P Auconi, M Scazzocchio, G Caldarelli, JA McNamara and L Franchi. Complex networks for data-driven medicine: the case of Class III dentoskeletal disharmony. New Journal of Physics 16(11):115017, November 2014. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{scala2014complex,
    	author = "Scala, A and Auconi, P and Scazzocchio, M and Caldarelli, G and McNamara, JA and Franchi, L",
    	doi = "10.1088/1367-2630/16/11/115017",
    	file = "::",
    	issn = "1367-2630",
    	journal = "New Journal of Physics",
    	month = "nov",
    	number = 11,
    	pages = 115017,
    	publisher = "IOP Publishing",
    	title = "{Complex networks for data-driven medicine: the case of Class III dentoskeletal disharmony}",
    	url = "http://stacks.iop.org/1367-2630/16/i=11/a=115017?key=crossref.c480f60f6771cd07458664854543dc81",
    	volume = 16,
    	year = 2014
    }
    
  3. Michelangelo Puliga, Guido Caldarelli and Stefano Battiston. Credit Default Swaps networks and systemic risk.. Scientific reports 4:6822, January 2014. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{puliga2014credit,
    	abstract = "Credit Default Swaps (CDS) spreads should reflect default risk of the underlying corporate debt. Actually, it has been recognized that CDS spread time series did not anticipate but only followed the increasing risk of default before the financial crisis. In principle, the network of correlations among CDS spread time series could at least display some form of structural change to be used as an early warning of systemic risk. Here we study a set of 176 CDS time series of financial institutions from 2002 to 2011. Networks are constructed in various ways, some of which display structural change at the onset of the credit crisis of 2008, but never before. By taking these networks as a proxy of interdependencies among financial institutions, we run stress-test based on Group DebtRank. Systemic risk before 2008 increases only when incorporating a macroeconomic indicator reflecting the potential losses of financial assets associated with house prices in the US. This approach indicates a promising way to detect systemic instabilities.",
    	author = "Puliga, Michelangelo and Caldarelli, Guido and Battiston, Stefano",
    	doi = "10.1038/srep06822",
    	issn = "2045-2322",
    	journal = "Scientific reports",
    	language = "en",
    	month = "jan",
    	pages = 6822,
    	pmid = 25366654,
    	publisher = "Nature Publishing Group",
    	title = "{Credit Default Swaps networks and systemic risk.}",
    	url = "http://www.nature.com/srep/2014/141029/srep06822/full/srep06822.html http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=4219172{\&}tool=pmcentrez{\&}rendertype=abstract",
    	volume = 4,
    	year = 2014
    }
    
  4. Zhen Zhu, Federica Cerina, Alessandro Chessa, Guido Caldarelli and Massimo Riccaboni. The rise of China in the International Trade Network: a community core detection approach.. PloS one 9(8):e105496, January 2014. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{zhu2014rise,
    	abstract = "Theory of complex networks proved successful in the description of a variety of complex systems ranging from biology to computer science and to economics and finance. Here we use network models to describe the evolution of a particular economic system, namely the International Trade Network (ITN). Previous studies often assume that globalization and regionalization in international trade are contradictory to each other. We re-examine the relationship between globalization and regionalization by viewing the international trade system as an interdependent complex network. We use the modularity optimization method to detect communities and community cores in the ITN during the years 1995-2011. We find rich dynamics over time both inter- and intra-communities. In particular, the Asia-Oceania community disappeared and reemerged over time along with a switch in leadership from Japan to China. We provide a multilevel description of the evolution of the network where the global dynamics (i.e., communities disappear or reemerge) and the regional dynamics (i.e., community core changes between community members) are related. Moreover, simulation results show that the global dynamics can be generated by a simple dynamic-edge-weight mechanism.",
    	author = "Zhu, Zhen and Cerina, Federica and Chessa, Alessandro and Caldarelli, Guido and Riccaboni, Massimo",
    	doi = "10.1371/journal.pone.0105496",
    	editor = "Perc, Matjaz",
    	file = ":Users/Gcalda/Google Drive (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)/Mendeley Desktop/Zhu et al/PloS one/Zhu et al. - 2014 - The rise of China in the International Trade Network a community core detection approach.pdf:pdf",
    	issn = "1932-6203",
    	journal = "PloS one",
    	month = "jan",
    	number = 8,
    	pages = "e105496",
    	pmid = 25136895,
    	publisher = "Public Library of Science",
    	title = "{The rise of China in the International Trade Network: a community core detection approach.}",
    	url = "http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105496",
    	volume = 9,
    	year = 2014
    }
    
  5. Walter Quattrociocchi, Guido Caldarelli and Antonio Scala. Opinion dynamics on interacting networks: media competition and social influence.. Scientific reports 4:4938, May 2014. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{quattrociocchi2014opinion,
    	abstract = "The inner dynamics of the multiple actors of the informations systems - i.e, T.V., newspapers, blogs, social network platforms, - play a fundamental role on the evolution of the public opinion. Coherently with the recent history of the information system (from few main stream media to the massive diffusion of socio-technical system), in this work we investigate how main stream media signed interaction might shape the opinion space. In particular we focus on how different size (in the number of media) and interaction patterns of the information system may affect collective debates and thus the opinions' distribution. We introduce a sophisticated computational model of opinion dynamics which accounts for the coexistence of media and gossip as separated mechanisms and for their feedback loops. The model accounts also for the effect of the media communication patterns by considering both the simple case where each medium mimics the behavior of the most successful one (to maximize the audience) and the case where there is polarization and thus competition among media memes. We show that plurality and competition within information sources lead to stable configurations where several and distant cultures coexist.",
    	author = "Quattrociocchi, Walter and Caldarelli, Guido and Scala, Antonio",
    	doi = "10.1038/srep04938",
    	issn = "2045-2322",
    	journal = "Scientific reports",
    	keywords = "influence,multilayer-networks,opinions,social{\_}networks",
    	month = "may",
    	pages = 4938,
    	pmid = 24861995,
    	title = "{Opinion dynamics on interacting networks: media competition and social influence.}",
    	url = "http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=4033925{\&}tool=pmcentrez{\&}rendertype=abstract http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep04938",
    	volume = 4,
    	year = 2014
    }
    
  6. Guido Caldarelli, Alessandro Chessa, Fabio Pammolli, Gabriele Pompa, Michelangelo Puliga, Massimo Riccaboni and Gianni Riotta. A multi-level geographical study of Italian political elections from Twitter data.. PloS one 9(5):e95809, January 2014. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{Caldarelli2014,
    	abstract = {In this paper we present an analysis of the behavior of Italian Twitter users during national political elections. We monitor the volumes of the tweets related to the leaders of the various political parties and we compare them to the elections results. Furthermore, we study the topics that are associated with the co-occurrence of two politicians in the same tweet. We cannot conclude, from a simple statistical analysis of tweet volume and their time evolution, that it is possible to precisely predict the election outcome (or at least not in our case of study that was characterized by a "too-close-to-call" scenario). On the other hand, we found that the volume of tweets and their change in time provide a very good proxy of the final results. We present this analysis both at a national level and at smaller levels, ranging from the regions composing the country to macro-areas (North, Center, South).},
    	author = "Caldarelli, Guido and Chessa, Alessandro and Pammolli, Fabio and Pompa, Gabriele and Puliga, Michelangelo and Riccaboni, Massimo and Riotta, Gianni",
    	doi = "10.1371/journal.pone.0095809",
    	editor = "Perc, Matjaz",
    	file = ":Users/Gcalda/Google Drive (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)/Mendeley Desktop/Caldarelli et al/PloS one/Caldarelli et al. - 2014 - A multi-level geographical study of Italian political elections from Twitter data.pdf:pdf",
    	issn = "1932-6203",
    	journal = "PloS one",
    	keywords = "Computer and information sciences,Computer applications,Databases,Information technology,Natural language processing,Physical sciences,Physics,Research Article,Statistical mechanics,Text mining,Web-based applications",
    	month = "jan",
    	number = 5,
    	pages = "e95809",
    	pmid = 24802857,
    	publisher = "Public Library of Science",
    	title = "{A multi-level geographical study of Italian political elections from Twitter data.}",
    	url = "http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0095809",
    	volume = 9,
    	year = 2014
    }
    
  7. Walter Quattrociocchi, Guido Caldarelli and Antonio Scala. Self-healing networks: redundancy and structure.. PloS one 9(2):e87986, January 2014. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{quattrociocchi2014self,
    	abstract = "We introduce the concept of self-healing in the field of complex networks modelling; in particular, self-healing capabilities are implemented through distributed communication protocols that exploit redundant links to recover the connectivity of the system. We then analyze the effect of the level of redundancy on the resilience to multiple failures; in particular, we measure the fraction of nodes still served for increasing levels of network damages. Finally, we study the effects of redundancy under different connectivity patterns-from planar grids, to small-world, up to scale-free networks-on healing performances. Small-world topologies show that introducing some long-range connections in planar grids greatly enhances the resilience to multiple failures with performances comparable to the case of the most resilient (and least realistic) scale-free structures. Obvious applications of self-healing are in the important field of infrastructural networks like gas, power, water, oil distribution systems.",
    	archiveprefix = "arXiv",
    	arxivid = "arXiv:1305.3450v1",
    	author = "Quattrociocchi, Walter and Caldarelli, Guido and Scala, Antonio",
    	doi = "10.1371/journal.pone.0087986",
    	editor = "Moreno, Yamir",
    	eprint = "arXiv:1305.3450v1",
    	file = ":Users/Gcalda/Google Drive (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)/Mendeley Desktop/Quattrociocchi, Caldarelli, Scala/PloS one/Quattrociocchi, Caldarelli, Scala - 2014 - Self-healing networks redundancy and structure.pdf:pdf",
    	issn = "1932-6203",
    	journal = "PloS one",
    	keywords = "Algorithms,Applied mathematics,Complex systems,Computer Communication Networks,Computer Simulation,Computer modeling,Computer science,Computing methods,Computing systems,Earth sciences,Electric Power Supplies,Electric power distribution,Energy and power,Mathematical computing,Mathematics,Physics,Power distribution,Research Article,Statistical mechanics,Statistical methods,Statistics,Water Supply",
    	month = "jan",
    	number = 2,
    	pages = "e87986",
    	pmid = 24533065,
    	publisher = "Public Library of Science",
    	title = "{Self-healing networks: redundancy and structure.}",
    	url = "http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0087986 http://dx.doi.org/10.1371{\%}2Fjournal.pone.0087986 http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087986 http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=3922772{\&}tool=pmcentrez{\&}rend",
    	volume = 9,
    	year = 2014
    }
    
  8. Alessandro Bessi, Guido Caldarelli, Michela Del Vicario, Antonio Scala and Walter Quattrociocchi. Social Determinants of Content Selection in the Age of (Mis)Information. In Social Informatics - 6th International Conference, SocInfo 2014, Barcelona, Spain, November 11-13, 2014. Proceedings. 2014, 259–268. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @inproceedings{bessi2014social,
    	author = "Bessi, Alessandro and Caldarelli, Guido and Vicario, Michela Del and Scala, Antonio and Quattrociocchi, Walter",
    	booktitle = "Social Informatics - 6th International Conference, SocInfo 2014, Barcelona, Spain, November 11-13, 2014. Proceedings",
    	doi = "10.1007/978-3-319-13734-6_18",
    	file = ":Users/Gcalda/Google Drive (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)/Mendeley Desktop/Bessi et al/Social Informatics - 6th International Conference, SocInfo 2014, Barcelona, Spain, November 11-13, 2014. Proceedings/Bessi et al. - 2014 - Social Determinants of Content Selection in the Age of (Mis)Information.pdf:pdf",
    	pages = "259--268",
    	title = "{Social Determinants of Content Selection in the Age of (Mis)Information}",
    	url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-13734-6{\_}18",
    	year = 2014
    }
    
  9. Antonio Scala, Guido Caldarelli, Alessandro Chessa, Alfonso Damiano, Mario Mureddu, Sakshi Pahwa, Caterina Scoglio and Walter Quattrociocchi. Power Grids, Smart Grids and Complex Networks. In Davron Matrasulov and Eugene H Stanley (eds.). Nonlinear Phenomena in Complex Systems: From Nano to Macro Scale. NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security series, Springer Netherlands, 2014, pages 97–110. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @incollection{ScalaNATO2014,
    	author = "Scala, Antonio and Caldarelli, Guido and Chessa, Alessandro and Damiano, Alfonso and Mureddu, Mario and Pahwa, Sakshi and Scoglio, Caterina and Quattrociocchi, Walter",
    	booktitle = "Nonlinear Phenomena in Complex Systems: From Nano to Macro Scale",
    	doi = "10.1007/978-94-017-8704-8_8",
    	editor = "Matrasulov, Davron and Stanley, H Eugene",
    	file = ":Users/Gcalda/Google Drive (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)/Mendeley Desktop/Scala et al/Nonlinear Phenomena in Complex Systems From Nano to Macro Scale/Scala et al. - 2014 - Power Grids, Smart Grids and Complex Networks.pdf:pdf",
    	isbn = "978-94-017-8703-1",
    	pages = "97--110",
    	publisher = "Springer Netherlands",
    	series = "NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security",
    	title = "{Power Grids, Smart Grids and Complex Networks}",
    	url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-8704-8{\_}8",
    	year = 2014
    }
    
  10. Mario Mureddu, Antonio Scala, Alessandro Chessa, Guido Caldarelli, Maura Musio and Alfonso Damiano. An Agent Based Approach for the Development of EV fleet Charging Strategies in Smart Cities. In 2014 IEEE International Electric Vehicle Conference (IEVC 2014). December 2014, 1–8. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @inproceedings{Mureddu2014,
    	abstract = "In the present paper an agent based approach, addressed to simulate the behaviour of a Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) fleet into a Smart City, is presented. Considering the traffic data-set available from mobility plans, a spatial and time model, representing the evolution of travel patterns, can be developed considering each vehicle as an agent. The following statistical analysis in space and time of the agent behaviours is used to plan the PEV charging infrastructure of municipalities. The proposed planning methodology has been tested on an European city in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed procedure. Such charging infrastructure, defined according to the mobility needs, has been tested and used to evaluate the customer satisfaction of PEV users in term of charging demand. The proposed charging system has been implemented to estimate the average daily energy profiles for charging the smart city PEV fleet during a typical workday. This has been finally used as one day ahead energy reference profile to develop a market-oriented EV charging strategies. The performance of the proposed smart charging strategies has been finally simulated and compared.",
    	author = "Mureddu, Mario and Scala, Antonio and Chessa, Alessandro and Caldarelli, Guido and Musio, Maura and Damiano, Alfonso",
    	booktitle = "2014 IEEE International Electric Vehicle Conference (IEVC 2014)",
    	doi = "10.1109/IEVC.2014.7056178",
    	isbn = 9781479960750,
    	keywords = "Charging stations,Cities and towns,Customer satisfaction,Planning,Roads,Vehicles",
    	month = "dec",
    	pages = "1--8",
    	publisher = "IEEE",
    	shorttitle = "Electric Vehicle Conference (IEVC), 2014 IEEE Inte",
    	title = "{An Agent Based Approach for the Development of EV fleet Charging Strategies in Smart Cities}",
    	url = "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumber=7056178",
    	year = 2014
    }
    
  11. Stefano Battiston and Guido Caldarelli. Financial Networks. In G D'Agostino and A Scala (eds.). Networks of Networks: The Last Frontier of Complexity. Springer, 2014, pages 311–321. BibTeX

    @incollection{battiston2014financial,
    	author = "Battiston, Stefano and Caldarelli, Guido",
    	booktitle = "Networks of Networks: The Last Frontier of Complexity",
    	editor = "D'Agostino, G. and Scala, A.",
    	file = ":Users/Gcalda/Google Drive (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)/Mendeley Desktop/Battiston, Caldarelli/Networks of Networks The Last Frontier of Complexity/Battiston, Caldarelli - 2014 - Financial Networks.pdf:pdf",
    	pages = "311--321",
    	publisher = "Springer",
    	title = "{Financial Networks}",
    	year = 2014
    }
    
  12. Giulio Cimini, Andrea Gabrielli and Francesco Sylos Labini. The Scientific Competitiveness of Nations. PLOS ONE 9(12), December 2014. DOI BibTeX

    @article{ISI:000346611400012,
    	abstract = "We use citation data of scientific articles produced by individual nations in different scientific domains to determine the structure and efficiency of national research systems. We characterize the scientific fitness of each nation-that is, the competitiveness of its research system-and the complexity of each scientific domain by means of a non-linear iterative algorithm able to assess quantitatively the advantage of scientific diversification. We find that technological leading nations, beyond having the largest production of scientific papers and the largest number of citations, do not specialize in a few scientific domains. Rather, they diversify as much as possible their research system. On the other side, less developed nations are competitive only in scientific domains where also many other nations are present. Diversification thus represents the key element that correlates with scientific and technological competitiveness. A remarkable implication of this structure of the scientific competition is that the scientific domains playing the role of ``markers'' of national scientific competitiveness are those not necessarily of high technological requirements, but rather addressing the most ``sophisticated'' needs of the society.",
    	author = "Cimini, Giulio and Gabrielli, Andrea and Labini, Francesco Sylos",
    	doi = "10.1371/journal.pone.0113470",
    	issn = "1932-6203",
    	journal = "PLOS ONE",
    	month = "dec",
    	number = 12,
    	title = "{The Scientific Competitiveness of Nations}",
    	volume = 9,
    	year = 2014
    }
    
  13. Hao Liao, Rui Xiao, Giulio Cimini and Matus Medo. Network-Driven Reputation in Online Scientific Communities. PLOS ONE 9(12), December 2014. DOI BibTeX

    @article{ISI:000345869700008,
    	abstract = "The ever-increasing quantity and complexity of scientific production have made it difficult for researchers to keep track of advances in their own fields. This, together with growing popularity of online scientific communities, calls for the development of effective information filtering tools. We propose here an algorithm which simultaneously computes reputation of users and fitness of papers in a bipartite network representing an online scientific community. Evaluation on artificially-generated data and real data from the Econophysics Forum is used to determine the method's best-performing variants. We show that when the input data is extended to a multilayer network including users, papers and authors and the algorithm is correspondingly modified, the resulting performance improves on multiple levels. In particular, top papers have higher citation count and top authors have higher h-index than top papers and top authors chosen by other algorithms. We finally show that our algorithm is robust against persistent authors (spammers) which makes the method readily applicable to the existing online scientific communities.",
    	author = "Liao, Hao and Xiao, Rui and Cimini, Giulio and Medo, Matus",
    	doi = "10.1371/journal.pone.0112022",
    	issn = "1932-6203",
    	journal = "PLOS ONE",
    	month = "dec",
    	number = 12,
    	title = "{Network-Driven Reputation in Online Scientific Communities}",
    	volume = 9,
    	year = 2014
    }
    
  14. Giulio Cimini and Angel Sanchez. Learning dynamics explains human behaviour in Prisoner's Dilemma on networks. JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY INTERFACE 11(94), May 2014. DOI BibTeX

    @article{ISI:000333191800011,
    	abstract = "Cooperative behaviour lies at the very basis of human societies, yet its evolutionary origin remains a key unsolved puzzle. Whereas reciprocity or conditional cooperation is one of the most prominent mechanisms proposed to explain the emergence of cooperation in social dilemmas, recent experimental findings on networked Prisoner's Dilemma games suggest that conditional cooperation also depends on the previous action of the player-namely on the `mood' in which the player is currently in. Roughly, a majority of people behave as conditional cooperators if they cooperated in the past, whereas they ignore the context and free ride with high probability if they did not. However, the ultimate origin of this behaviour represents a conundrum itself. Here, we aim specifically to provide an evolutionary explanation of moody conditional cooperation (MCC). To this end, we perform an extensive analysis of different evolutionary dynamics for players' behavioural traits-ranging from standard processes used in game theory based on pay-off comparison to others that include non-economic or social factors. Our results show that only a dynamic built upon reinforcement learning is able to give rise to evolutionarily stable MCC, and at the end to reproduce the human behaviours observed in the experiments.",
    	author = "Cimini, Giulio and Sanchez, Angel",
    	doi = "10.1098/rsif.2013.1186",
    	issn = "1742-5689",
    	journal = "JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY INTERFACE",
    	month = "may",
    	number = 94,
    	title = "{Learning dynamics explains human behaviour in Prisoner's Dilemma on networks}",
    	volume = 11,
    	year = 2014
    }
    
  15. Rossana Mastrandrea, Tiziano Squartini, Giorgio Fagiolo and Diego Garlaschelli. Reconstructing the world trade multiplex: The role of intensive and extensive biases. Physical Review E 90(6):1–18, 2014. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{mastrandrea2014reconstructing,
    	author = "Mastrandrea, Rossana and Squartini, Tiziano and Fagiolo, Giorgio and Garlaschelli, Diego",
    	doi = "10.1103/PhysRevE.90.062804",
    	file = ":Users/Gcalda/Google Drive (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)/Mendeley Desktop/Mastrandrea et al/Physical Review E/Mastrandrea et al. - 2014 - Reconstructing the world trade multiplex The role of intensive and extensive biases.pdf:pdf",
    	issn = "1539-3755",
    	journal = "Physical Review E",
    	number = 6,
    	pages = "1--18",
    	title = "{Reconstructing the world trade multiplex: The role of intensive and extensive biases}",
    	url = "http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevE.90.062804",
    	volume = 90,
    	year = 2014
    }
    
  16. Rossana Mastrandrea, Tiziano Squartini, Giorgio Fagiolo and Diego Garlaschelli. Enhanced reconstruction of weighted networks from strengths and degrees. New Journal of Physics 16(4):043022, 2014. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{mastrandrea2014enhanced,
    	archiveprefix = "arXiv",
    	arxivid = "arXiv:1307.2104v2",
    	author = "Mastrandrea, Rossana and Squartini, Tiziano and Fagiolo, Giorgio and Garlaschelli, Diego",
    	doi = "10.1088/1367-2630/16/4/043022",
    	eprint = "arXiv:1307.2104v2",
    	file = ":Users/Gcalda/Dropbox (IMT Alti Studi Lucca)/Mendeley Desktop/Mastrandrea et al/New Journal of Physics/Mastrandrea et al. - 2014 - Enhanced reconstruction of weighted networks from strengths and degrees.pdf:pdf",
    	issn = "1367-2630",
    	journal = "New Journal of Physics",
    	number = 4,
    	pages = 043022,
    	publisher = "IOP Publishing",
    	title = "{Enhanced reconstruction of weighted networks from strengths and degrees}",
    	url = "http://stacks.iop.org/1367-2630/16/i=4/a=043022?key=crossref.df57c3bef118788c2ef7d5d5414f1131",
    	volume = 16,
    	year = 2014
    }
    

  1. Danilo Delpini, Stefano Battiston, Massimo Riccaboni, Giampaolo Gabbi, Fabio Pammolli and Guido Caldarelli. Evolution of Controllability in Interbank Networks. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS 3, April 2013. DOI BibTeX

    @article{ISI:000317331200003,
    	abstract = "The Statistical Physics of Complex Networks has recently provided new theoretical tools for policy makers. Here we extend the notion of network controllability to detect the financial institutions, i.e. the drivers, that are most crucial to the functioning of an interbank market. The system we investigate is a paradigmatic case study for complex networks since it undergoes dramatic structural changes over time and links among nodes can be observed at several time scales. We find a scale-free decay of the fraction of drivers with increasing time resolution, implying that policies have to be adjusted to the time scales in order to be effective. Moreover, drivers are often not the most highly connected ``hub{\{}''{\}} institutions, nor the largest lenders, contrary to the results of other studies. Our findings contribute quantitative indicators which can support regulators in developing more effective supervision and intervention policies.",
    	author = "Delpini, Danilo and Battiston, Stefano and Riccaboni, Massimo and Gabbi, Giampaolo and Pammolli, Fabio and Caldarelli, Guido",
    	doi = "10.1038/srep01626",
    	issn = "2045-2322",
    	journal = "SCIENTIFIC REPORTS",
    	month = "apr",
    	title = "{Evolution of Controllability in Interbank Networks}",
    	volume = 3,
    	year = 2013
    }
    
  2. Tarik Roukny, Hugues Bersini, Hugues Pirotte, Guido Caldarelli and Stefano Battiston. Default Cascades in Complex Networks: Topology and Systemic Risk. Scientific Reports 3:1–31, September 2013. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{roukny2013default,
    	abstract = "The recent crisis has brought to the fore a crucial question that remains still open: what would be the optimal architecture of financial systems? We investigate the stability of several benchmark topologies in a simple default cascading dynamics in bank networks. We analyze the interplay of several crucial drivers, i.e., network topology, banks' capital ratios, market illiquidity, and random vs targeted shocks. We find that, in general, topology matters only – but substantially – when the market is illiquid. No single topology is always superior to others. In particular, scale-free networks can be both more robust and more fragile than homogeneous architectures. This finding has important policy implications. We also apply our methodology to a comprehensive dataset of an interbank market from 1999 to 2011. T he impact of network topology on systemic risk is a central topic of the science of complex networks 1,2 , not only because of its theoretical interest, but also because of its many empirical applications, for instance on infrastructure networks 3 and financial systems 4 . In a cascading dynamics, some network nodes are assumed to fail at the beginning of the process. Their failures increase the load (or the level of distress) of the neighboring nodes. When this load at a node exceeds its threshold (i.e. its individual robustness) the node fails, possibly triggering a cascade. This type of propagation dynamics has been applied to a variety of social and economic contexts 5,6",
    	author = "Roukny, Tarik and Bersini, Hugues and Pirotte, Hugues and Caldarelli, Guido and Battiston, Stefano",
    	doi = "10.1038/srep02759",
    	file = ":Users/Gcalda/Google Drive (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)/Mendeley Desktop/Roukny et al/Scientific reports/Roukny et al. - 2013 - Default cascades in complex networks topology and systemic risk.pdf:pdf",
    	issn = "2045-2322",
    	journal = "Scientific Reports",
    	language = "en",
    	month = "sep",
    	pages = "1--31",
    	publisher = "Nature Publishing Group",
    	title = "{Default Cascades in Complex Networks: Topology and Systemic Risk}",
    	url = "http://www.nature.com/srep/2013/130926/srep02759/full/srep02759.html",
    	volume = 3,
    	year = 2013
    }
    
  3. Matthieu Cristelli, Andrea Gabrielli, Andrea Tacchella, Guido Caldarelli and Luciano Pietronero. Measuring the Intangibles: A Metrics for the Economic Complexity of Countries and Products. PLoS ONE 8(8), 2013. BibTeX

    @article{Cristelli2013a,
    	abstract = "We investigate a recent methodology we have proposed to extract valuable information on the competitiveness of countries and complexity of products from trade data. Standard economic theories predict a high level of specialization of countries in specific industrial sectors. However, a direct analysis of the official databases of exported products by all countries shows that the actual situation is very different. Countries commonly considered as developed ones are extremely diversified, exporting a large variety of products from very simple to very complex. At the same time countries generally considered as less developed export only the products also exported by the majority of countries. This situation calls for the introduction of a non-monetary and non-income-based measure for country economy complexity which uncovers the hidden potential for development and growth. The statistical approach we present here consists of coupled non-linear maps relating the competitiveness/fitness of countries to the complexity of their products. The fixed point of this transformation defines a metrics for the fitness of countries and the complexity of products. We argue that the key point to properly extract the economic information is the non-linearity of the map which is necessary to bound the complexity of products by the fitness of the less competitive countries exporting them. We present a detailed comparison of the results of this approach directly with those of the Method of Reflections by Hidalgo and Hausmann, showing the better performance of our method and a more solid economic, scientific and consistent foundation.",
    	author = "Cristelli, Matthieu and Gabrielli, Andrea and Tacchella, Andrea and Caldarelli, Guido and Pietronero, Luciano",
    	journal = "PLoS ONE",
    	number = 8,
    	title = "{Measuring the Intangibles: A Metrics for the Economic Complexity of Countries and Products}",
    	volume = 8,
    	year = 2013
    }
    
  4. Diego Garlaschelli, Sebastian E Ahnert, Thomas M A Fink and Guido Caldarelli. Low-Temperature Behaviour of Social and Economic Networks. Entropy 15(8):3148–3169, August 2013. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{Garlaschelli2013a,
    	abstract = "Real-world social and economic networks typically display a number of particular topological properties, such as a giant connected component, a broad degree distribution, the small-world property and the presence of communities of densely interconnected nodes. Several models, including ensembles of networks, also known in social science as Exponential Random Graphs, have been proposed with the aim of reproducing each of these properties in isolation. Here, we define a generalized ensemble of graphs by introducing the concept of graph temperature, controlling the degree of topological optimization of a network. We consider the temperature-dependent version of both existing and novel models and show that all the aforementioned topological properties can be simultaneously understood as the natural outcomes of an optimized, low-temperature topology. We also show that seemingly different graph models, as well as techniques used to extract information from real networks are all found to be particular low-temperature cases of the same generalized formalism. One such technique allows us to extend our approach to real weighted networks. Our results suggest that a low graph temperature might be a ubiquitous property of real socio-economic networks, placing conditions on the diffusion of information across these systems. {\textcopyright} 2013 by the authors.",
    	archiveprefix = "arXiv",
    	arxivid = "cond-mat/0606805",
    	author = "Garlaschelli, Diego and Ahnert, Sebastian E. and Fink, Thomas M A and Caldarelli, Guido",
    	doi = "10.3390/e15083238",
    	eprint = 0606805,
    	file = ":Users/Gcalda/Google Drive (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)/Mendeley Desktop/Garlaschelli et al/Entropy/Garlaschelli et al. - 2013 - Low-Temperature Behaviour of Social and Economic Networks.pdf:pdf",
    	issn = "1099-4300",
    	journal = "Entropy",
    	keywords = "Complex networks,Graph ensembles,Graph temperature",
    	month = "aug",
    	number = 8,
    	pages = "3148--3169",
    	primaryclass = "cond-mat",
    	title = "{Low-Temperature Behaviour of Social and Economic Networks}",
    	url = "http://www.mdpi.com/1099-4300/15/8/3148/ http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-84884188844{\&}partnerID=tZOtx3y1",
    	volume = 15,
    	year = 2013
    }
    
  5. Andrea Tacchella, Matthieu Cristelli, Guido Caldarelli, Andrea Gabrielli and Luciano Pietronero. Economic complexity: Conceptual grounding of a new metrics for global competitiveness. Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, 2013. BibTeX

    @article{tacchella2013economic,
    	author = "Tacchella, Andrea and Cristelli, Matthieu and Caldarelli, Guido and Gabrielli, Andrea and Pietronero, Luciano",
    	file = ":Users/Gcalda/Google Drive (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)/Mendeley Desktop/Tacchella et al/Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control/Tacchella et al. - 2013 - Economic complexity Conceptual grounding of a new metrics for global competitiveness.pdf:pdf",
    	journal = "Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control",
    	publisher = "North-Holland",
    	title = "{Economic complexity: Conceptual grounding of a new metrics for global competitiveness}",
    	year = 2013
    }
    
  6. Nicolò Musmeci, Stefano Battiston, Guido Caldarelli, Michelangelo Puliga and Andrea Gabrielli. Bootstrapping topological properties and systemic risk of complex networks using the fitness model. Journal of Statistical Physics 151(3-4):1–15, March 2013. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{musmeci2013bootstrapping,
    	author = "Musmeci, Nicol{\`{o}} and Battiston, Stefano and Caldarelli, Guido and Puliga, Michelangelo and Gabrielli, Andrea",
    	doi = "10.1007/s10955-013-0720-1",
    	file = ":Users/Gcalda/Google Drive (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)/Mendeley Desktop/Musmeci et al/Journal of Statistical Physics/Musmeci et al. - 2013 - Bootstrapping topological properties and systemic risk of complex networks using the fitness model.pdf:pdf",
    	issn = "0022-4715",
    	journal = "Journal of Statistical Physics",
    	month = "mar",
    	number = "3-4",
    	pages = "1--15",
    	publisher = "Springer US",
    	title = "{Bootstrapping topological properties and systemic risk of complex networks using the fitness model}",
    	url = "http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10955-013-0720-1",
    	volume = 151,
    	year = 2013
    }
    
  7. Stefano Battiston, Guido Caldarelli, Co-Pierre Georg, Robert May and Joseph Stiglitz. Complex derivatives. Nature Physics 9(3):123–125, March 2013. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{battiston2013complex,
    	author = "Battiston, Stefano and Caldarelli, Guido and Georg, Co-Pierre and May, Robert and Stiglitz, Joseph",
    	doi = "10.1038/nphys2575",
    	file = ":Users/Gcalda/Google Drive (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)/Mendeley Desktop/Battiston et al/Nature Physics/Battiston et al. - 2013 - Complex derivatives.pdf:pdf",
    	issn = "1745-2473",
    	journal = "Nature Physics",
    	month = "mar",
    	number = 3,
    	pages = "123--125",
    	publisher = "Nature Publishing Group",
    	title = "{Complex derivatives}",
    	url = "http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/nphys2575",
    	volume = 9,
    	year = 2013
    }
    
  8. Guido Caldarelli, Alessandro Chessa, Fabio Pammolli, Andrea Gabrielli and Michelangelo Puliga. Reconstructing a credit network. Nature Physics 9(3):125–126, 2013. BibTeX

    @article{caldarelli2013reconstructing,
    	author = "Caldarelli, Guido and Chessa, Alessandro and Pammolli, Fabio and Gabrielli, Andrea and Puliga, Michelangelo",
    	journal = "Nature Physics",
    	number = 3,
    	pages = "125--126",
    	publisher = "Nature Publishing Group",
    	title = "{Reconstructing a credit network}",
    	volume = 9,
    	year = 2013
    }
    
  9. Guido Caldarelli, Alessandro Chessa, Irene Crimaldi and Fabio Pammolli. Weighted networks as randomly reinforced urn processes. Physical Review E 87(2):020106, February 2013. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{caldarelli2014weighted,
    	author = "Caldarelli, Guido and Chessa, Alessandro and Crimaldi, Irene and Pammolli, Fabio",
    	doi = "10.1103/PhysRevE.87.020106",
    	file = ":Users/Gcalda/Google Drive (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)/Mendeley Desktop/Caldarelli et al/Physical Review E/Caldarelli et al. - 2013 - Weighted networks as randomly reinforced urn processes.pdf:pdf",
    	issn = "1539-3755",
    	journal = "Physical Review E",
    	month = "feb",
    	number = 2,
    	pages = 020106,
    	title = "{Weighted networks as randomly reinforced urn processes}",
    	url = "http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevE.87.020106",
    	volume = 87,
    	year = 2013
    }
    

  1. S Cincotti, D Sornette, P Treleaven, S Battiston, G Caldarelli, C Hommes and A Kirman. An economic and financial exploratory. EUROPEAN PHYSICAL JOURNAL-SPECIAL TOPICS 214(1):361–400, November 2012. DOI BibTeX

    @article{ISI:000312246900016,
    	abstract = "This paper describes the vision of a European Exploratory for economics and finance using an interdisciplinary consortium of economists, natural scientists, computer scientists and engineers, who will combine their expertise to address the enormous challenges of the 21st century. This Academic Public facility is intended for economic modelling, investigating all aspects of risk and stability, improving financial technology, and evaluating proposed regulatory and taxation changes. The European Exploratory for economics and finance will be constituted as a network of infrastructure, observatories, data repositories, services and facilities and will foster the creation of a new cross-disciplinary research community of social scientists, complexity scientists and computing (ICT) scientists to collaborate in investigating major issues in economics and finance. It is also considered a cradle for training and collaboration with the private sector to spur spin-offs and job creations in Europe in the finance and economic sectors. The Exploratory will allow Social Scientists and Regulators as well as Policy Makers and the private sector to conduct realistic investigations with real economic, financial and social data. The Exploratory will (i) continuously monitor and evaluate the status of the economies of countries in their various components, (ii) use, extend and develop a large variety of methods including data mining, process mining, computational and artificial intelligence and every other computer and complex science techniques coupled with economic theory and econometric, and (iii) provide the framework and infrastructure to perform what-if analysis, scenario evaluations and computational, laboratory, field and web experiments to inform decision makers and help develop innovative policy, market and regulation designs.",
    	author = "Cincotti, S and Sornette, D and Treleaven, P and Battiston, S and Caldarelli, G and Hommes, C and Kirman, A",
    	doi = "10.1140/epjst/e2012-01699-6",
    	issn = "1951-6355",
    	journal = "EUROPEAN PHYSICAL JOURNAL-SPECIAL TOPICS",
    	month = "nov",
    	number = 1,
    	pages = "361--400",
    	title = "{An economic and financial exploratory}",
    	volume = 214,
    	year = 2012
    }
    
  2. Antonio Scala, Pietro Auconi, Marco Scazzocchio, Guido Caldarelli, James A McNamara and Lorenzo Franchi. Using Networks To Understand Medical Data: The Case of Class III Malocclusions. PLOS ONE 7(9), September 2012. DOI BibTeX

    @article{ISI:000309392800010,
    	abstract = "A system of elements that interact or regulate each other can be represented by a mathematical object called a network. While network analysis has been successfully applied to high-throughput biological systems, less has been done regarding their application in more applied fields of medicine; here we show an application based on standard medical diagnostic data. We apply network analysis to Class III malocclusion, one of the most difficult to understand and treat orofacial anomaly. We hypothesize that different interactions of the skeletal components can contribute to pathological disequilibrium; in order to test this hypothesis, we apply network analysis to 532 Class III young female patients. The topology of the Class III malocclusion obtained by network analysis shows a strong co-occurrence of abnormal skeletal features. The pattern of these occurrences influences the vertical and horizontal balance of disharmony in skeletal form and position. Patients with more unbalanced orthodontic phenotypes show preponderance of the pathological skeletal nodes and minor relevance of adaptive dentoalveolar equilibrating nodes. Furthermore, by applying Power Graphs analysis we identify some functional modules among orthodontic nodes. These modules correspond to groups of tightly inter-related features and presumably constitute the key regulators of plasticity and the sites of unbalance of the growing dentofacial Class III system. The data of the present study show that, in their most basic abstraction level, the orofacial characteristics can be represented as graphs using nodes to represent orthodontic characteristics, and edges to represent their various types of interactions. The applications of this mathematical model could improve the interpretation of the quantitative, patient-specific information, and help to better targeting therapy. Last but not least, the methodology we have applied in analyzing orthodontic features can be applied easily to other fields of the medical science.",
    	author = "Scala, Antonio and Auconi, Pietro and Scazzocchio, Marco and Caldarelli, Guido and McNamara, James A and Franchi, Lorenzo",
    	doi = "10.1371/journal.pone.0044521",
    	issn = "1932-6203",
    	journal = "PLOS ONE",
    	month = "sep",
    	number = 9,
    	title = "{Using Networks To Understand Medical Data: The Case of Class III Malocclusions}",
    	volume = 7,
    	year = 2012
    }
    
  3. G Caldarelli, G Kaniadakis and A Scarfone. Progress in the physics of complex networks. EUROPEAN PHYSICAL JOURNAL-SPECIAL TOPICS 212(1):1–3, September 2012. DOI BibTeX

    @article{ISI:000308723800001,
    	author = "Caldarelli, G and Kaniadakis, G and Scarfone, A",
    	doi = "10.1140/epjst/e2012-01650-y",
    	issn = "1951-6355",
    	journal = "EUROPEAN PHYSICAL JOURNAL-SPECIAL TOPICS",
    	month = "sep",
    	number = 1,
    	pages = "1--3",
    	title = "{Progress in the physics of complex networks}",
    	volume = 212,
    	year = 2012
    }
    
  4. V Zlatic, D Garlaschelli and G Caldarelli. Networks with arbitrary edge multiplicities. EPL 97(2), January 2012. DOI BibTeX

    @article{ISI:000300259100043,
    	abstract = "One of the main characteristics of real-world networks is their large clustering. Clustering is one aspect of a more general but much less studied structural organization of networks, i.e. edge multiplicity, defined as the number of triangles in which edges, rather than vertices, participate. Here we show that the multiplicity distribution of real networks is in many cases scale free, and in general very broad. Thus, besides the fact that in real networks the number of edges attached to vertices often has a scale-free distribution, we find that the number of triangles attached to edges can have a scale-free distribution as well. We show that current models, even when they generate clustered networks, systematically fail to reproduce the observed multiplicity distributions. We therefore propose a generalized model that can reproduce networks with arbitrary distributions of vertex degrees and edge multiplicities, and study many of its properties analytically. Copyright (C) EPLA, 2012",
    	author = "Zlatic, V and Garlaschelli, D and Caldarelli, G",
    	doi = "10.1209/0295-5075/97/28005",
    	issn = "0295-5075",
    	journal = "EPL",
    	month = "jan",
    	number = 2,
    	title = "{Networks with arbitrary edge multiplicities}",
    	volume = 97,
    	year = 2012
    }
    
  5. Guido Caldarelli, Matthieu Cristelli, Andrea Gabrielli, Luciano Pietronero, Antonio Scala and Andrea Tacchella. A network analysis of countries' export flows: firm grounds for the building blocks of the economy.. PloS one 7(10):e47278, January 2012. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{Caldarelli2012,
    	abstract = {In this paper we analyze the bipartite network of countries and products from UN data on country production. We define the country-country and product-product projected networks and introduce a novel method of filtering information based on elements' similarity. As a result we find that country clustering reveals unexpected socio-geographic links among the most competing countries. On the same footings the products clustering can be efficiently used for a bottom-up classification of produced goods. Furthermore we mathematically reformulate the "reflections method" introduced by Hidalgo and Hausmann as a fixpoint problem; such formulation highlights some conceptual weaknesses of the approach. To overcome such an issue, we introduce an alternative methodology (based on biased Markov chains) that allows to rank countries in a conceptually consistent way. Our analysis uncovers a strong non-linear interaction between the diversification of a country and the ubiquity of its products, thus suggesting the possible need of moving towards more efficient and direct non-linear fixpoint algorithms to rank countries and products in the global market.},
    	author = "Caldarelli, Guido and Cristelli, Matthieu and Gabrielli, Andrea and Pietronero, Luciano and Scala, Antonio and Tacchella, Andrea",
    	doi = "10.1371/journal.pone.0047278",
    	file = ":Users/Gcalda/Google Drive (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)/Mendeley Desktop/Caldarelli et al/PloS one/Caldarelli et al. - 2012 - A network analysis of countries' export flows firm grounds for the building blocks of the economy.pdf:pdf",
    	issn = "1932-6203",
    	journal = "PloS one",
    	month = "jan",
    	number = 10,
    	pages = "e47278",
    	pmid = 23094044,
    	title = "{A network analysis of countries' export flows: firm grounds for the building blocks of the economy.}",
    	url = "http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=3477170{\&}tool=pmcentrez{\&}rendertype=abstract",
    	volume = 7,
    	year = 2012
    }
    
  6. Andrea Tacchella, Matthieu Cristelli, Guido Caldarelli, Andrea Gabrielli and Luciano Pietronero. A new metrics for countries' fitness and products' complexity.. Scientific reports 2:723, January 2012. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{tacchella2012new,
    	abstract = "Classical economic theories prescribe specialization of countries industrial production. Inspection of the country databases of exported products shows that this is not the case: successful countries are extremely diversified, in analogy with biosystems evolving in a competitive dynamical environment. The challenge is assessing quantitatively the non-monetary competitive advantage of diversification which represents the hidden potential for development and growth. Here we develop a new statistical approach based on coupled non-linear maps, whose fixed point defines a new metrics for the country Fitness and product Complexity. We show that a non-linear iteration is necessary to bound the complexity of products by the fitness of the less competitive countries exporting them. We show that, given the paradigm of economic complexity, the correct and simplest approach to measure the competitiveness of countries is the one presented in this work. Furthermore our metrics appears to be economically well-grounded.",
    	author = "Tacchella, Andrea and Cristelli, Matthieu and Caldarelli, Guido and Gabrielli, Andrea and Pietronero, Luciano",
    	doi = "10.1038/srep00723",
    	file = ":Users/Gcalda/Google Drive (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)/Mendeley Desktop/Tacchella et al/Scientific reports/Tacchella et al. - 2012 - A new metrics for countries' fitness and products' complexity.pdf:pdf",
    	issn = "2045-2322",
    	journal = "Scientific reports",
    	keywords = "statistical physics",
    	language = "en",
    	month = "jan",
    	pages = 723,
    	pmid = 23056915,
    	publisher = "Nature Publishing Group",
    	title = "{A new metrics for countries' fitness and products' complexity.}",
    	url = "http://www.nature.com/srep/2012/121010/srep00723/full/srep00723.html http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=3467565{\&}tool=pmcentrez{\&}rendertype=abstract",
    	volume = 2,
    	year = 2012
    }
    
  7. M Cristelli, A Tacchella, A Gabrielli, L Pietronero, A Scala and G Caldarelli. Competitors' communities and taxonomy of products according to export fluxes. The European Physical Journal Special Topics 212(1):115–120, September 2012. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{cristelli2012competitors,
    	author = "Cristelli, M. and Tacchella, A. and Gabrielli, A. and Pietronero, L. and Scala, A. and Caldarelli, G.",
    	doi = "10.1140/epjst/e2012-01657-4",
    	file = ":Users/Gcalda/Google Drive (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)/Mendeley Desktop/Cristelli et al/The European Physical Journal Special Topics/Cristelli et al. - 2012 - Competitors' communities and taxonomy of products according to export fluxes.pdf:pdf",
    	issn = "1951-6355",
    	journal = "The European Physical Journal Special Topics",
    	month = "sep",
    	number = 1,
    	pages = "115--120",
    	title = "{Competitors' communities and taxonomy of products according to export fluxes}",
    	url = "http://www.springerlink.com/index/10.1140/epjst/e2012-01657-4",
    	volume = 212,
    	year = 2012
    }
    
  8. Stefano Battiston, Michelangelo Puliga, Rahul Kaushik, Paolo Tasca and Guido Caldarelli. DebtRank: too central to fail? Financial networks, the FED and systemic risk.. Scientific reports 2:541, January 2012. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{battiston2012debtrank,
    	abstract = "Systemic risk, here meant as the risk of default of a large portion of the financial system, depends on the network of financial exposures among institutions. However, there is no widely accepted methodology to determine the systemically important nodes in a network. To fill this gap, we introduce, DebtRank, a novel measure of systemic impact inspired by feedback-centrality. As an application, we analyse a new and unique dataset on the USD 1.2 trillion FED emergency loans program to global financial institutions during 2008-2010. We find that a group of 22 institutions, which received most of the funds, form a strongly connected graph where each of the nodes becomes systemically important at the peak of the crisis. Moreover, a systemic default could have been triggered even by small dispersed shocks. The results suggest that the debate on too-big-to-fail institutions should include the even more serious issue of too-central-to-fail.",
    	author = "Battiston, Stefano and Puliga, Michelangelo and Kaushik, Rahul and Tasca, Paolo and Caldarelli, Guido",
    	doi = "10.1038/srep00541",
    	file = ":Users/Gcalda/Google Drive (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)/Mendeley Desktop/Battiston et al/Scientific reports/Battiston et al. - 2012 - DebtRank too central to fail Financial networks, the FED and systemic risk.pdf:pdf",
    	issn = "2045-2322",
    	journal = "Scientific reports",
    	keywords = "statistical physics",
    	month = "jan",
    	pages = 541,
    	pmid = 22870377,
    	title = "{DebtRank: too central to fail? Financial networks, the FED and systemic risk.}",
    	url = "http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=3412322{\&}tool=pmcentrez{\&}rendertype=abstract",
    	volume = 2,
    	year = 2012
    }
    
  9. Ilaria Bordino, Stefano Battiston, Guido Caldarelli, Matthieu Cristelli, Antti Ukkonen and Ingmar Weber. Web search queries can predict stock market volumes.. PloS one 7(7):e40014, January 2012. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{bordino2012web,
    	abstract = "We live in a computerized and networked society where many of our actions leave a digital trace and affect other people's actions. This has lead to the emergence of a new data-driven research field: mathematical methods of computer science, statistical physics and sociometry provide insights on a wide range of disciplines ranging from social science to human mobility. A recent important discovery is that search engine traffic (i.e., the number of requests submitted by users to search engines on the www) can be used to track and, in some cases, to anticipate the dynamics of social phenomena. Successful examples include unemployment levels, car and home sales, and epidemics spreading. Few recent works applied this approach to stock prices and market sentiment. However, it remains unclear if trends in financial markets can be anticipated by the collective wisdom of on-line users on the web. Here we show that daily trading volumes of stocks traded in NASDAQ-100 are correlated with daily volumes of queries related to the same stocks. In particular, query volumes anticipate in many cases peaks of trading by one day or more. Our analysis is carried out on a unique dataset of queries, submitted to an important web search engine, which enable us to investigate also the user behavior. We show that the query volume dynamics emerges from the collective but seemingly uncoordinated activity of many users. These findings contribute to the debate on the identification of early warnings of financial systemic risk, based on the activity of users of the www.",
    	author = "Bordino, Ilaria and Battiston, Stefano and Caldarelli, Guido and Cristelli, Matthieu and Ukkonen, Antti and Weber, Ingmar",
    	doi = "10.1371/journal.pone.0040014",
    	editor = "Montoya, Alejandro Raul Hernandez",
    	file = ":Users/Gcalda/Google Drive (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)/Mendeley Desktop/Bordino et al/PloS one/Bordino et al. - 2012 - Web search queries can predict stock market volumes.pdf:pdf",
    	issn = "1932-6203",
    	journal = "PloS one",
    	keywords = "Internet,Investments,Search Engine",
    	month = "jan",
    	number = 7,
    	pages = "e40014",
    	pmid = 22829871,
    	publisher = "Public Library of Science",
    	title = "{Web search queries can predict stock market volumes.}",
    	url = "http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0040014",
    	volume = 7,
    	year = 2012
    }
    
  10. G D'Agostino, A Scala, V Zlatić and G Caldarelli. Robustness and assortativity for diffusion-like processes in scale-free networks. EPL (Europhysics Letters) 97(6):68006, March 2012. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{dagostino2012robustness,
    	author = "D'Agostino, G. and Scala, A. and Zlati{\'{c}}, V. and Caldarelli, G.",
    	doi = "10.1209/0295-5075/97/68006",
    	file = ":Users/Gcalda/Google Drive (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)/Mendeley Desktop/D'Agostino et al/EPL (Europhysics Letters)/D'Agostino et al. - 2012 - Robustness and assortativity for diffusion-like processes in scale-free networks.pdf:pdf",
    	issn = "0295-5075",
    	journal = "EPL (Europhysics Letters)",
    	language = "en",
    	month = "mar",
    	number = 6,
    	pages = 68006,
    	publisher = "EPS, SIF, EDP Sciences and IOP Publishing",
    	title = "{Robustness and assortativity for diffusion-like processes in scale-free networks}",
    	url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1209/0295-5075/97/68006",
    	volume = 97,
    	year = 2012
    }
    

  1. P Auconi, G Caldarelli, A Scala, G Ierardo and A Polimeni. A network approach to orthodontic diagnosis. ORTHODONTICS & CRANIOFACIAL RESEARCH 14(4):189–197, November 2011. DOI BibTeX

    @article{ISI:000296059400001,
    	abstract = "Network analysis, a recent advancement in complexity science, enables understanding of the properties of complex biological processes characterized by the interaction, adaptive regulation, and coordination of a large number of participating components. Objective - We applied network analysis to orthodontics to detect and visualize the most interconnected clinical, radiographic, and functional data pertaining to the orofacial system. Materials and Methods - The sample consisted of 104 individuals from 7 to 13 years of age in the mixed dentition phase without previous orthodontic intervention. The subjects were divided according to skeletal class; their clinical, radiographic, and functional features were represented as vertices (nodes) and links (edges) connecting them. Results - Class II subjects exhibited few highly connected orthodontic features (hubs), while Class III patients showed a more compact network structure characterized by strong co-occurrence of normal and abnormal clinical, functional, and radiological features. Restricting our analysis to the highest correlations, we identified critical peculiarities of Class II and Class III malocclusions. Conclusions - The topology of the dentofacial system obtained by network analysis could allow orthodontists to visually evaluate and anticipate the co-occurrence of auxological anomalies during individual craniofacial growth and possibly localize reactive sites for a therapeutic approach to malocclusion.",
    	author = "Auconi, P and Caldarelli, G and Scala, A and Ierardo, G and Polimeni, A",
    	doi = "10.1111/j.1601-6343.2011.01523.x",
    	issn = "1601-6335",
    	journal = "ORTHODONTICS {\&} CRANIOFACIAL RESEARCH",
    	month = "nov",
    	number = 4,
    	pages = "189--197",
    	title = "{A network approach to orthodontic diagnosis}",
    	volume = 14,
    	year = 2011
    }
    
  2. Gian Marco Palamara, Vinko Zlatic, Antonio Scala and Guido Caldarelli. POPULATION DYNAMICS ON COMPLEX FOOD WEBS. ADVANCES IN COMPLEX SYSTEMS 14(4):635–647, August 2011. DOI BibTeX

    @article{ISI:000293855100008,
    	abstract = "In this work we analyze the topological and dynamical properties of a simple model of complex food webs, namely the niche model. In order to underline competition among species, we introduce ``prey{\{}''{\}} and ``predators{\{}''{\}} weighted overlap graphs derived from the niche model and compare synthetic food webs with real data. Doing so, we find new tests for the goodness of synthetic food web models and indicate a possible direction of improvement for existing ones. We then exploit the weighted overlap graphs to define a competition kernel for Lotka-Volterra population dynamics and find that for such a model the stability of food webs decreases with its ecological complexity.",
    	author = "Palamara, Gian Marco and Zlatic, Vinko and Scala, Antonio and Caldarelli, Guido",
    	doi = "10.1142/S0219525911003116",
    	issn = "0219-5259",
    	journal = "ADVANCES IN COMPLEX SYSTEMS",
    	month = "aug",
    	number = 4,
    	pages = "635--647",
    	title = "{POPULATION DYNAMICS ON COMPLEX FOOD WEBS}",
    	volume = 14,
    	year = 2011
    }
    

 

  1. S Battiston, J B Glattfelder, D Garlaschelli, F Lillo and G Caldarelli. The Structure of Financial Networks. In Network Science. Springer, 2010, pages 131–163. BibTeX

    @incollection{battiston2010structure,
    	author = "Battiston, S. and Glattfelder, J B and Garlaschelli, D and Lillo, F and Caldarelli, G",
    	booktitle = "Network Science",
    	keywords = "PRJ{\_}FOC,REF{\_}CDSNETS11,REF{\_}FED11,TOP{\_}SYSRISC,cds",
    	mendeley-tags = "PRJ{\_}FOC,REF{\_}CDSNETS11,REF{\_}FED11,TOP{\_}SYSRISC,cds",
    	pages = "131--163",
    	publisher = "Springer",
    	title = "{The Structure of Financial Networks}",
    	year = 2010
    }
    
  2. Mark Buchanan and Guido Caldarelli. A networked world. Physics World 23(2):22–24, 2010. BibTeX

    @article{buchanan2010networked,
    	author = "Buchanan, Mark and Caldarelli, Guido",
    	file = ":Users/Gcalda/Google Drive (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)/Mendeley Desktop/Buchanan, Caldarelli/Physics World/Buchanan, Caldarelli - 2010 - A networked world.pdf:pdf",
    	issn = 09538585,
    	journal = "Physics World",
    	number = 2,
    	pages = "22--24",
    	publisher = "Institute of Physics",
    	title = "{A networked world}",
    	volume = 23,
    	year = 2010
    }
    
  3. P Giammatteo, D Donato, V Zlatić and G Caldarelli. A PageRank-based preferential attachment model for the evolution of the World Wide Web. EPL (Europhysics Letters) 91(1):18004, July 2010. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{gianmatteo2010pagerank,
    	abstract = "We propose a model of network growth aimed at mimicking the evolution of the World Wide Web. To this$\backslash$n purpose, we take as a key quantity, in the network evolution, the centrality or importance of a$\backslash$n vertex as measured by its PageRank. Using a preferential attachment rule and a rewiring procedure$\backslash$n based on this quantity, we can reproduce most of the topological properties of the system.",
    	author = "Giammatteo, P. and Donato, D. and Zlati{\'{c}}, V. and Caldarelli, G.",
    	doi = "10.1209/0295-5075/91/18004",
    	file = ":Users/Gcalda/Google Drive (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)/Mendeley Desktop/Giammatteo et al/EPL (Europhysics Letters)/Giammatteo et al. - 2010 - A PageRank-based preferential attachment model for the evolution of the World Wide Web.pdf:pdf",
    	issn = "0295-5075",
    	journal = "EPL (Europhysics Letters)",
    	month = "jul",
    	number = 1,
    	pages = 18004,
    	title = "{A PageRank-based preferential attachment model for the evolution of the World Wide Web}",
    	url = "http://stacks.iop.org/0295-5075/91/i=1/a=18004?key=crossref.ce114846a77e2d0540a6ac32d84f4376",
    	volume = 91,
    	year = 2010
    }
    
  4. Vinko Zlatic, Andrea Gabrielli and Guido Caldarelli. Topologically biased random walk and community finding in networks. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 82(6, 2), December 2010. DOI BibTeX

    @article{ISI:000286742900001,
    	abstract = "We present an approach of topology biased random walks for undirected networks. We focus on a one-parameter family of biases, and by using a formal analogy with perturbation theory in quantum mechanics we investigate the features of biased random walks. This analogy is extended through the use of parametric equations of motion to study the features of random walks vs parameter values. Furthermore, we show an analysis of the spectral gap maximum associated with the value of the second eigenvalue of the transition matrix related to the relaxation rate to the stationary state. Applications of these studies allow ad hoc algorithms for the exploration of complex networks and their communities.",
    	author = "Zlatic, Vinko and Gabrielli, Andrea and Caldarelli, Guido",
    	doi = "10.1103/PhysRevE.82.066109",
    	issn = "1539-3755",
    	journal = "PHYSICAL REVIEW E",
    	month = "dec",
    	number = "6, 2",
    	title = "{Topologically biased random walk and community finding in networks}",
    	volume = 82,
    	year = 2010
    }