1. S Cincotti, D Sornette, P Treleaven, S Battiston, G Caldarelli, C Hommes and A Kirman. An economic and financial exploratory. EUROPEAN PHYSICAL JOURNAL-SPECIAL TOPICS 214(1):361–400, November 2012. DOI BibTeX

    @article{ISI:000312246900016,
    	abstract = "This paper describes the vision of a European Exploratory for economics and finance using an interdisciplinary consortium of economists, natural scientists, computer scientists and engineers, who will combine their expertise to address the enormous challenges of the 21st century. This Academic Public facility is intended for economic modelling, investigating all aspects of risk and stability, improving financial technology, and evaluating proposed regulatory and taxation changes. The European Exploratory for economics and finance will be constituted as a network of infrastructure, observatories, data repositories, services and facilities and will foster the creation of a new cross-disciplinary research community of social scientists, complexity scientists and computing (ICT) scientists to collaborate in investigating major issues in economics and finance. It is also considered a cradle for training and collaboration with the private sector to spur spin-offs and job creations in Europe in the finance and economic sectors. The Exploratory will allow Social Scientists and Regulators as well as Policy Makers and the private sector to conduct realistic investigations with real economic, financial and social data. The Exploratory will (i) continuously monitor and evaluate the status of the economies of countries in their various components, (ii) use, extend and develop a large variety of methods including data mining, process mining, computational and artificial intelligence and every other computer and complex science techniques coupled with economic theory and econometric, and (iii) provide the framework and infrastructure to perform what-if analysis, scenario evaluations and computational, laboratory, field and web experiments to inform decision makers and help develop innovative policy, market and regulation designs.",
    	author = "Cincotti, S and Sornette, D and Treleaven, P and Battiston, S and Caldarelli, G and Hommes, C and Kirman, A",
    	doi = "10.1140/epjst/e2012-01699-6",
    	issn = "1951-6355",
    	journal = "EUROPEAN PHYSICAL JOURNAL-SPECIAL TOPICS",
    	month = "nov",
    	number = 1,
    	pages = "361--400",
    	title = "{An economic and financial exploratory}",
    	volume = 214,
    	year = 2012
    }
    
  2. Antonio Scala, Pietro Auconi, Marco Scazzocchio, Guido Caldarelli, James A McNamara and Lorenzo Franchi. Using Networks To Understand Medical Data: The Case of Class III Malocclusions. PLOS ONE 7(9), September 2012. DOI BibTeX

    @article{ISI:000309392800010,
    	abstract = "A system of elements that interact or regulate each other can be represented by a mathematical object called a network. While network analysis has been successfully applied to high-throughput biological systems, less has been done regarding their application in more applied fields of medicine; here we show an application based on standard medical diagnostic data. We apply network analysis to Class III malocclusion, one of the most difficult to understand and treat orofacial anomaly. We hypothesize that different interactions of the skeletal components can contribute to pathological disequilibrium; in order to test this hypothesis, we apply network analysis to 532 Class III young female patients. The topology of the Class III malocclusion obtained by network analysis shows a strong co-occurrence of abnormal skeletal features. The pattern of these occurrences influences the vertical and horizontal balance of disharmony in skeletal form and position. Patients with more unbalanced orthodontic phenotypes show preponderance of the pathological skeletal nodes and minor relevance of adaptive dentoalveolar equilibrating nodes. Furthermore, by applying Power Graphs analysis we identify some functional modules among orthodontic nodes. These modules correspond to groups of tightly inter-related features and presumably constitute the key regulators of plasticity and the sites of unbalance of the growing dentofacial Class III system. The data of the present study show that, in their most basic abstraction level, the orofacial characteristics can be represented as graphs using nodes to represent orthodontic characteristics, and edges to represent their various types of interactions. The applications of this mathematical model could improve the interpretation of the quantitative, patient-specific information, and help to better targeting therapy. Last but not least, the methodology we have applied in analyzing orthodontic features can be applied easily to other fields of the medical science.",
    	author = "Scala, Antonio and Auconi, Pietro and Scazzocchio, Marco and Caldarelli, Guido and McNamara, James A and Franchi, Lorenzo",
    	doi = "10.1371/journal.pone.0044521",
    	issn = "1932-6203",
    	journal = "PLOS ONE",
    	month = "sep",
    	number = 9,
    	title = "{Using Networks To Understand Medical Data: The Case of Class III Malocclusions}",
    	volume = 7,
    	year = 2012
    }
    
  3. G Caldarelli, G Kaniadakis and A Scarfone. Progress in the physics of complex networks. EUROPEAN PHYSICAL JOURNAL-SPECIAL TOPICS 212(1):1–3, September 2012. DOI BibTeX

    @article{ISI:000308723800001,
    	author = "Caldarelli, G and Kaniadakis, G and Scarfone, A",
    	doi = "10.1140/epjst/e2012-01650-y",
    	issn = "1951-6355",
    	journal = "EUROPEAN PHYSICAL JOURNAL-SPECIAL TOPICS",
    	month = "sep",
    	number = 1,
    	pages = "1--3",
    	title = "{Progress in the physics of complex networks}",
    	volume = 212,
    	year = 2012
    }
    
  4. V Zlatic, D Garlaschelli and G Caldarelli. Networks with arbitrary edge multiplicities. EPL 97(2), January 2012. DOI BibTeX

    @article{ISI:000300259100043,
    	abstract = "One of the main characteristics of real-world networks is their large clustering. Clustering is one aspect of a more general but much less studied structural organization of networks, i.e. edge multiplicity, defined as the number of triangles in which edges, rather than vertices, participate. Here we show that the multiplicity distribution of real networks is in many cases scale free, and in general very broad. Thus, besides the fact that in real networks the number of edges attached to vertices often has a scale-free distribution, we find that the number of triangles attached to edges can have a scale-free distribution as well. We show that current models, even when they generate clustered networks, systematically fail to reproduce the observed multiplicity distributions. We therefore propose a generalized model that can reproduce networks with arbitrary distributions of vertex degrees and edge multiplicities, and study many of its properties analytically. Copyright (C) EPLA, 2012",
    	author = "Zlatic, V and Garlaschelli, D and Caldarelli, G",
    	doi = "10.1209/0295-5075/97/28005",
    	issn = "0295-5075",
    	journal = "EPL",
    	month = "jan",
    	number = 2,
    	title = "{Networks with arbitrary edge multiplicities}",
    	volume = 97,
    	year = 2012
    }
    
  5. Guido Caldarelli, Matthieu Cristelli, Andrea Gabrielli, Luciano Pietronero, Antonio Scala and Andrea Tacchella. A network analysis of countries' export flows: firm grounds for the building blocks of the economy.. PloS one 7(10):e47278, January 2012. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{Caldarelli2012,
    	abstract = {In this paper we analyze the bipartite network of countries and products from UN data on country production. We define the country-country and product-product projected networks and introduce a novel method of filtering information based on elements' similarity. As a result we find that country clustering reveals unexpected socio-geographic links among the most competing countries. On the same footings the products clustering can be efficiently used for a bottom-up classification of produced goods. Furthermore we mathematically reformulate the "reflections method" introduced by Hidalgo and Hausmann as a fixpoint problem; such formulation highlights some conceptual weaknesses of the approach. To overcome such an issue, we introduce an alternative methodology (based on biased Markov chains) that allows to rank countries in a conceptually consistent way. Our analysis uncovers a strong non-linear interaction between the diversification of a country and the ubiquity of its products, thus suggesting the possible need of moving towards more efficient and direct non-linear fixpoint algorithms to rank countries and products in the global market.},
    	author = "Caldarelli, Guido and Cristelli, Matthieu and Gabrielli, Andrea and Pietronero, Luciano and Scala, Antonio and Tacchella, Andrea",
    	doi = "10.1371/journal.pone.0047278",
    	file = ":Users/Gcalda/Google Drive (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)/Mendeley Desktop/Caldarelli et al/PloS one/Caldarelli et al. - 2012 - A network analysis of countries' export flows firm grounds for the building blocks of the economy.pdf:pdf",
    	issn = "1932-6203",
    	journal = "PloS one",
    	month = "jan",
    	number = 10,
    	pages = "e47278",
    	pmid = 23094044,
    	title = "{A network analysis of countries' export flows: firm grounds for the building blocks of the economy.}",
    	url = "http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=3477170{\&}tool=pmcentrez{\&}rendertype=abstract",
    	volume = 7,
    	year = 2012
    }
    
  6. Andrea Tacchella, Matthieu Cristelli, Guido Caldarelli, Andrea Gabrielli and Luciano Pietronero. A new metrics for countries' fitness and products' complexity.. Scientific reports 2:723, January 2012. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{tacchella2012new,
    	abstract = "Classical economic theories prescribe specialization of countries industrial production. Inspection of the country databases of exported products shows that this is not the case: successful countries are extremely diversified, in analogy with biosystems evolving in a competitive dynamical environment. The challenge is assessing quantitatively the non-monetary competitive advantage of diversification which represents the hidden potential for development and growth. Here we develop a new statistical approach based on coupled non-linear maps, whose fixed point defines a new metrics for the country Fitness and product Complexity. We show that a non-linear iteration is necessary to bound the complexity of products by the fitness of the less competitive countries exporting them. We show that, given the paradigm of economic complexity, the correct and simplest approach to measure the competitiveness of countries is the one presented in this work. Furthermore our metrics appears to be economically well-grounded.",
    	author = "Tacchella, Andrea and Cristelli, Matthieu and Caldarelli, Guido and Gabrielli, Andrea and Pietronero, Luciano",
    	doi = "10.1038/srep00723",
    	file = ":Users/Gcalda/Google Drive (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)/Mendeley Desktop/Tacchella et al/Scientific reports/Tacchella et al. - 2012 - A new metrics for countries' fitness and products' complexity.pdf:pdf",
    	issn = "2045-2322",
    	journal = "Scientific reports",
    	keywords = "statistical physics",
    	language = "en",
    	month = "jan",
    	pages = 723,
    	pmid = 23056915,
    	publisher = "Nature Publishing Group",
    	title = "{A new metrics for countries' fitness and products' complexity.}",
    	url = "http://www.nature.com/srep/2012/121010/srep00723/full/srep00723.html http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=3467565{\&}tool=pmcentrez{\&}rendertype=abstract",
    	volume = 2,
    	year = 2012
    }
    
  7. M Cristelli, A Tacchella, A Gabrielli, L Pietronero, A Scala and G Caldarelli. Competitors' communities and taxonomy of products according to export fluxes. The European Physical Journal Special Topics 212(1):115–120, September 2012. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{cristelli2012competitors,
    	author = "Cristelli, M. and Tacchella, A. and Gabrielli, A. and Pietronero, L. and Scala, A. and Caldarelli, G.",
    	doi = "10.1140/epjst/e2012-01657-4",
    	file = ":Users/Gcalda/Google Drive (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)/Mendeley Desktop/Cristelli et al/The European Physical Journal Special Topics/Cristelli et al. - 2012 - Competitors' communities and taxonomy of products according to export fluxes.pdf:pdf",
    	issn = "1951-6355",
    	journal = "The European Physical Journal Special Topics",
    	month = "sep",
    	number = 1,
    	pages = "115--120",
    	title = "{Competitors' communities and taxonomy of products according to export fluxes}",
    	url = "http://www.springerlink.com/index/10.1140/epjst/e2012-01657-4",
    	volume = 212,
    	year = 2012
    }
    
  8. Stefano Battiston, Michelangelo Puliga, Rahul Kaushik, Paolo Tasca and Guido Caldarelli. DebtRank: too central to fail? Financial networks, the FED and systemic risk.. Scientific reports 2:541, January 2012. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{battiston2012debtrank,
    	abstract = "Systemic risk, here meant as the risk of default of a large portion of the financial system, depends on the network of financial exposures among institutions. However, there is no widely accepted methodology to determine the systemically important nodes in a network. To fill this gap, we introduce, DebtRank, a novel measure of systemic impact inspired by feedback-centrality. As an application, we analyse a new and unique dataset on the USD 1.2 trillion FED emergency loans program to global financial institutions during 2008-2010. We find that a group of 22 institutions, which received most of the funds, form a strongly connected graph where each of the nodes becomes systemically important at the peak of the crisis. Moreover, a systemic default could have been triggered even by small dispersed shocks. The results suggest that the debate on too-big-to-fail institutions should include the even more serious issue of too-central-to-fail.",
    	author = "Battiston, Stefano and Puliga, Michelangelo and Kaushik, Rahul and Tasca, Paolo and Caldarelli, Guido",
    	doi = "10.1038/srep00541",
    	file = ":Users/Gcalda/Google Drive (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)/Mendeley Desktop/Battiston et al/Scientific reports/Battiston et al. - 2012 - DebtRank too central to fail Financial networks, the FED and systemic risk.pdf:pdf",
    	issn = "2045-2322",
    	journal = "Scientific reports",
    	keywords = "statistical physics",
    	month = "jan",
    	pages = 541,
    	pmid = 22870377,
    	title = "{DebtRank: too central to fail? Financial networks, the FED and systemic risk.}",
    	url = "http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=3412322{\&}tool=pmcentrez{\&}rendertype=abstract",
    	volume = 2,
    	year = 2012
    }
    
  9. Ilaria Bordino, Stefano Battiston, Guido Caldarelli, Matthieu Cristelli, Antti Ukkonen and Ingmar Weber. Web search queries can predict stock market volumes.. PloS one 7(7):e40014, January 2012. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{bordino2012web,
    	abstract = "We live in a computerized and networked society where many of our actions leave a digital trace and affect other people's actions. This has lead to the emergence of a new data-driven research field: mathematical methods of computer science, statistical physics and sociometry provide insights on a wide range of disciplines ranging from social science to human mobility. A recent important discovery is that search engine traffic (i.e., the number of requests submitted by users to search engines on the www) can be used to track and, in some cases, to anticipate the dynamics of social phenomena. Successful examples include unemployment levels, car and home sales, and epidemics spreading. Few recent works applied this approach to stock prices and market sentiment. However, it remains unclear if trends in financial markets can be anticipated by the collective wisdom of on-line users on the web. Here we show that daily trading volumes of stocks traded in NASDAQ-100 are correlated with daily volumes of queries related to the same stocks. In particular, query volumes anticipate in many cases peaks of trading by one day or more. Our analysis is carried out on a unique dataset of queries, submitted to an important web search engine, which enable us to investigate also the user behavior. We show that the query volume dynamics emerges from the collective but seemingly uncoordinated activity of many users. These findings contribute to the debate on the identification of early warnings of financial systemic risk, based on the activity of users of the www.",
    	author = "Bordino, Ilaria and Battiston, Stefano and Caldarelli, Guido and Cristelli, Matthieu and Ukkonen, Antti and Weber, Ingmar",
    	doi = "10.1371/journal.pone.0040014",
    	editor = "Montoya, Alejandro Raul Hernandez",
    	file = ":Users/Gcalda/Google Drive (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)/Mendeley Desktop/Bordino et al/PloS one/Bordino et al. - 2012 - Web search queries can predict stock market volumes.pdf:pdf",
    	issn = "1932-6203",
    	journal = "PloS one",
    	keywords = "Internet,Investments,Search Engine",
    	month = "jan",
    	number = 7,
    	pages = "e40014",
    	pmid = 22829871,
    	publisher = "Public Library of Science",
    	title = "{Web search queries can predict stock market volumes.}",
    	url = "http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0040014",
    	volume = 7,
    	year = 2012
    }
    
  10. G D'Agostino, A Scala, V Zlatić and G Caldarelli. Robustness and assortativity for diffusion-like processes in scale-free networks. EPL (Europhysics Letters) 97(6):68006, March 2012. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{dagostino2012robustness,
    	author = "D'Agostino, G. and Scala, A. and Zlati{\'{c}}, V. and Caldarelli, G.",
    	doi = "10.1209/0295-5075/97/68006",
    	file = ":Users/Gcalda/Google Drive (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)/Mendeley Desktop/D'Agostino et al/EPL (Europhysics Letters)/D'Agostino et al. - 2012 - Robustness and assortativity for diffusion-like processes in scale-free networks.pdf:pdf",
    	issn = "0295-5075",
    	journal = "EPL (Europhysics Letters)",
    	language = "en",
    	month = "mar",
    	number = 6,
    	pages = 68006,
    	publisher = "EPS, SIF, EDP Sciences and IOP Publishing",
    	title = "{Robustness and assortativity for diffusion-like processes in scale-free networks}",
    	url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1209/0295-5075/97/68006",
    	volume = 97,
    	year = 2012
    }